2022 Belarusian and Russian partisan movement

Movement emerged in Belarus and Russia
2022 Belarusian and Russian partisan movement
Part of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and the 2022 anti-war protests in Russia
Anti-war inscription in the Saint Petersburg (2022-05-07).jpg
Anti-war graffiti in Saint Petersburg
Date24 February 2022 (2022-02-24) – present
Location
Union State (Russia and Belarus)
Caused byRussian invasion of Ukraine
Mobilization in Russia
Methods
StatusOngoing
Parties to the civil conflict

Russian opposition

Supported by:


Belarusian opposition

Lead figures
Decentralized Leadership Vladimir Putin

Alexander Lukashenko

Casualties and losses

Russian Opposition:
Arrests: 6+[18]

Belarusian Opposition:

Arrests: 11+[19]

Russia Russia:

Deaths: 1+
  • v
  • t
  • e
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Kyiv offensive

Northeastern Ukraine campaign

Eastern Ukraine campaign
Donbas offensive
Eastern Ukrainian counteroffensive

Southern Ukraine campaign
Southern Ukrainian counteroffensive

Other regions
Naval war
Spillover and cross-border incidents
Resistance

Possibly related

Partisan movements in Belarus and Russia emerged in Belarus and Russia, after the latter's invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It is stated that the movement is acting against the autocratic regimes of both Alexander Lukashenko in Belarus and Vladimir Putin in Russia and their armed forces, as well as against civilian supporters of these authorities, in order to put a stop to the war in Ukraine.[20]

Attacks on buildings of authorities and supporters of the war

By 7 March 2022, cases of arsons of police departments were recorded in Smolensk and Krasnoyarsk.[21]

As of 5 July 2022[update], at least 23 attacks on military enlistment offices were recorded, 20 of them were arson.[22] The arson attacks were not a single coordinated campaign: behind them were a variety of people: from far-left groups to far-right groups. Sometimes they were loners who did not associate themselves with any movements.[23][24] Civilian vehicles bearing the letter Z insignia (supporting the war efforts) were also set ablaze.[20]

On 27 August 2022, multiple Russian-language outlets reported that a woman named Evgenia Belova doused a parked BMW X6 with accelerant and set it ablaze in Moscow. The vehicle belonged to Yevgeny Sekretarev (Russian: Евгения Секретарева) who reportedly works for the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation; the Directorate oversees the State Secret Protection Service [ru] handling wartime censorship. A woman detained for the arson also reportedly proclaimed her opposition to the war.[25][26][27][28][29] The woman is described as 65 years old, a patient of a local "psychoneurological clinic," and lives in the same building as Sekretarev.[30] Coverage of the incident by Radio Svoboda, a United States-government backed outlet, mentioned a relative of the woman making the unverified claim that she was kidnapped prior to the arson by Ukrainian special forces, held for a ransom of 500,000 Russian rubles, and "hypnotized." The woman's relatives further insisted she was never against the Russian authorities, and would never have committed arson against the Russian government.[31]

Rail war

Belarus

The rail war actively unfolded in Belarus in February 2022. Signaling equipment was destroyed in three Belarusian regions, and railway lines were blocked. As a result of these operations, the work of several branches of the Belarusian railway was disrupted.

Russia

In Russia, the movements “Combat Organization of Anarcho-Communists” (BOAK) and “Stop the Wagons” announced their sabotage activities on the railway infrastructure. According to The Insider, 63 freight trains derailed in Russia between March and June 2022, almost 1.5 times more than in the same period last year. At the same time, the geography of wagon wrecks shifted to the west, and some trains got into accidents near military units.[23] According to Russian Railways and inspection bodies, half of the accidents are related to the poor condition of the railway tracks.[32]

Attributed to BOAK

Representatives of BOAK took responsibility not only for dismantling rails and railway sabotage in Sergiyev Posad near Moscow and near Kirzhach, Vladimir Oblast, but also for setting fire to cell towers (for example, in the village of Belomestnoye in the Belgorod Oblast) and even for setting fire to cars of people supporting actions of the Russian leadership. According to the anarchists themselves, their activities were largely inspired by the actions of the Belarusian partisans, who effectively resisted the Russian invasion through the territory of Belarus at the very beginning of the war.[23]

Attributed to Stop the Wagons

The “Stop the Wagons” movement in Russia claimed responsibility for the derailment of wagons in the Amur Oblast, due to which traffic on the Trans–Siberian Railway was stopped on June 29,[33][34][35][36] for the derailment of a train in Tver on July 5,[37] several wagons with coal in Krasnoyarsk on July 13,[38] as well as freight trains in the Krasnoyarsk Krai at the Lesosibirsk station on July 19,[39] in Makhachkala overnight between 23 and 24 July (the investigating authorities of Dagestan are also considering sabotage as a probable cause of this incident)[40][41] and on the Oktyabrskaya railway near Babaevo station on August 12.[42] According to the map published by the movement, its activists operate on more than 30% of the territory of Russia.[43][44]

Assassination of Darya Dugina and the National Republican Army manifesto

On 21 August 2022, a bomb planted in a vehicle killed Darya Dugina; it is widely presumed the bomb was also meant to kill her father Aleksandr Dugin. Both are identified with Nazbolism, gave statements justifying war against Ukraine, and denied atrocities such as Bucha massacre.[45][46] The United States sanctioned both figures for their support of the regime and the war; Dugina was sanctioned for her work with Yevgeny Prigozhin in the Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[47]

Former Russian Duma deputy Ilya Ponomarev, who is based in Kyiv, said that a partisan organization “National Republican Army” is operating inside Russia and engaged in “overthrowing the Putin regime” and was behind the assassination of Dugina. The politician called the event a landmark and said that the partisans inside Russia are ready for further similar attacks.[48] Ponomarev has told several outlets he has been "in touch" with representatives of the organization since April 2022. He states that the group has been involved in unspecified 2022 Russian military commissariats arsons.[49] In a May 2022 conference of exiles in Vilnius sponsored by the Free Russia Forum, Ponomarev appealed to attendees to support direct action within Russia. A Spektr (Russian: Спектр) reporter noted an indifferent response from the attendees.[50]

Purported manifesto

Ponomarev read the NRA's purported manifesto on a YouTube channel he owns, February Morning (Russian: Утро Февраля).[51] The text of the manifesto was also shared over February Morning's affiliated Telegram channel, Rospartizan (Russian: Роспартизан).[52]As of 26 August 2022[update], YouTube's metrics indicate video containing the claim of responsibility and sharing the maniesto is February Morning's most-seen video with 176,646 views.[51]

Doubts of NRA's existence

Doubts of the NRA's responsibility and its very existence have been raised by a wide variety of commentators.[53][54] A 22 August 2022 report from Reuters says that "[Ponomarev's] assertion and the group's existence could not be independently verified."[55] The sole suspect named by Russian investigators is a Ukrainian woman whom, Russia claims, is part of its military. The Russian government has also stated that the woman fled to Estonia.[56] The governments of Ukraine and Estonia each denied any role in the assassination.[57][58][59]

Exiles denounce Ponomarev

The veracity of Ponomarev's claims notwithstanding, his endorsement of armed action against the regime resulted in his blacklisting by the anti-Putin exile group the Russian Action Committee. Per the Committee's statement, this was because he "called for terrorist attacks on Russian territory." The Committee's statement also implied that Dugina was a "civilian" who did not take part in the armed confrontation," and condemned denunciations of Aleksandr Dugin following the attack as "a demonstrative rejection of normal human empathy for the families of the victims."[60][61]

Reaction of the authorities

The Russian authorities were forced to tighten security measures on the railways.

On April 27, the Belarusian authorities approved amendments to the Criminal Code, providing for the possibility of applying the death penalty "for attempted acts of terrorism."

On May 8, 2022, the Telegram channel of the movement was blocked. According to their own statements, they were blocked "after the publication of a map of railway resistance, which covered over 30% of the territory of Russia."[62][63] On July 19, the website of Stop the Wagons was blocked by Roskomnadzor in Russia at the request of the Prosecutor General's Office.[64][65]

In August 2022, a court in Moscow fined the Telegram messenger 7 million Russian rubles (quoted by TASS as equivalent to $113,900 USD) for refusing to remove channels providing instructions for railway sabotage and containing "propaganda pushing the ideology of anarchism."[66][67][68]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ in the North Caucasus region only

References

  1. ^ ""Рельсовые диверсанты" сообщили о сходе поезда в Твери". Archived from the original on 2022-07-14. Retrieved 2022-07-16.
  2. ^ "Жечь военкоматы и готовиться к революции. Представители антипутинского подполья о жизни после мобилизации" [Burn the military commissariats and prepare for the revolution. Representatives of the anti-Putin underground about life after mobilization]. Vot Tak (Belsat) (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-09-24.
  3. ^ "Охота на тех, кто проводит мобилизацию: в Дагестане создали партизанское движение". 24 Канал (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-09-25.
  4. ^ Началова, Марина (2022-09-25). "Протестующие в Дагестане объявили о старте партизанского движения и выдвинули ультиматум: "Трассы запылают!"". Новости в 'Час Пик' (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-09-25.
  5. ^ ""Это не наша война. Украинцы нам ничего плохого не делали". Башкирские националисты объявили о создании вооруженного сопротивления". The Insider (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  6. ^ "В Петербурге и Оренбургской области подожгли военкоматы". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Российская оппозиция начинает вооруженное сопротивление Путину: подписано декларацию". Главком | Glavcom (in Ukrainian). 2022-08-31. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  8. ^ Smart, Jason Jay (2022-08-23). "Exclusive interview: Russia's NRA Begins Activism". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 2022-08-23.
  9. ^ "Этот поезд в огне: как российские партизаны поджигают военкоматы и пускают поезда под откос" [This train is on fire: how Russian partisans set fire to military enlistment offices and derail trains]. The Insider (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  10. ^ "Краткий курс NS/WP. Что мы знаем о задержанных за покушение на Соловьева — и о том, кто жег военкоматы" [An Introduction to NS/WP: What do we know about those detained for the assassination attempt on Solovyov - and about who burned the military registration and enlistment offices?]. Медиазона (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  11. ^ ""Мы окажем помощь": штаб Навального призвал поджигать военкоматы из-за мобилизации в РФ". ФОКУС (in Russian). 2022-09-21. Retrieved 2022-09-23.
  12. ^ "Жечь военкоматы и готовиться к революции. Представители антипутинского подполья о жизни после мобилизации". Вот Так (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-09-23.
  13. ^ "Акт о Движении Сопротивления - 1-й Съезд Народных Депутатов" (in Russian). 2022-11-07. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  14. ^ "Белорусы ведут против российских войск "рельсовую войну"? | DW | 28.03.2022". Deutsche Welle.
  15. ^ "В Беларуси началась "рельсовая война" против России (видео)".
  16. ^ a b c d Shy, Liz (23 April 2022). "The Belarusian railway workers who helped thwart Russia's attack on Kyiv". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Охота на "рельсовых партизан": кого в Беларуси задерживают за происшествия на железной дороге". Настоящее Время (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  18. ^ "В Москве арестовали еще одного подозреваемого в подготовке покушения на Соловьева". tass.ru. Retrieved 2022-09-03.
  19. ^ "Партизан приравняли к террористам. Как власти Беларуси пытаются остановить "рельсовую войну" против военных эшелонов РФ".
  20. ^ a b "Коктейли Молотова и рельсовая война — стратегия новой российской оппозиции. Роман Попков поговорил с "партизанами" об их методах борьбы" [Molotov cocktails and rail war: the strategy of the new Russian opposition. Roman Popkov speaks with the "partisans" about their methods of struggle]. БелСат (in Russian). August 12, 2022.
  21. ^ "Полицейских предупредили о возможных поджогах: уже пострадал военкомат" [Police were warned about possible arson: military registration and enlistment offices already hit]. www.mk.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-11. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  22. ^ "Baza: в России задержаны двое подозреваемых в поджогах военкоматов" [Baza: two suspects in arson of military registration and enlistment offices detained in Russia]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-06-18. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  23. ^ a b c ""Изображал флейту, пел — охранники его били". Кто такой Илья Фарбер — бывший сельский учитель, арестованный за поджог военкомата" [“He played a flute, sang - the guards beat him.” Who is Ilya Farber - the former village teacher arrested for setting fire to a military registration and enlistment office?]. Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-07-07. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  24. ^ ""Сплошное белое пятно": кто поджигает военкоматы в России" ["A solid white spot": who is setting military registration and enlistment offices ablaze in Russia?]. NEWS.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  25. ^ "976". Telegram (in Russian). Роспартизан. 2022-08-27. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  26. ^ "12954". Telegram (in Russian). Baza. 2022-08-27. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  27. ^ "12956". Telegram (in Russian). Baza. 2022-08-27. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  28. ^ "11772". Telegram (in Russian). 112. 2022-08-27. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  29. ^ "СМИ: в Москве подожгли автомобиль замначальника Генштаба ВС России" [Media: in Moscow, car of the Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces set ablaze]. Главные события в России и мире | RTVI (in Russian). 2022-08-27. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  30. ^ "Car of Russian General Staff official set on fire in Moscow, woman detained – Russian media". Ukrainska Pravda. 2022-08-28. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  31. ^ "Москвичку, которая подожгла BMW сотрудника Генштаба, могли обмануть" [Muscovite who set fire to the BMW of a member of the General Staff may have been deceived]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  32. ^ "На РЖД сходят с рельсов вагоны – почему?" [Wagons derailed at Russian Railways - why?]. www.rzd-partner.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-07-05. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  33. ^ "Антивоенные активисты взяли ответственность за сход с рельсов вагонов в Приамурье" [Anti-War Activists Take Responsibility for the Derailment of Wagons in the Amur Region]. Новые Времена (in Russian). 2022-07-01. Archived from the original on 2022-07-01. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  34. ^ "В Приамурье 19 вагонов сошли с ж/д-путей, остановлен Транссиб. Ответственность за диверсию взяли на себя антивоенные активисты" [In the Amur region: 19 wagons derailed, the Trans-Siberian stopped. Anti-war activists claim responsibility for sabotage]. Общая Газета.eu. Archived from the original on 2022-07-09. Retrieved 2022-07-16.
  35. ^ "ACLED Regional Overview: Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia (25 June-1 July 2022)". ReliefWeb. 2022-07-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ Szabelak, Adam (2022-07-01). "Partyzanci kolejowi w Rosji przyznali się do wykolejenia wagonów na Dalekim Wschodzie" [Railway Partisans in Russia Admit to Derailing Carriages in the Far East]. Kresy (in Polish).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ ""Рельсовые диверсанты" сообщили о сходе поезда в Твери" ["Rail Saboteurs" report derailment of a train in Tver]. Новые Времена (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-07-14. Retrieved 2022-07-16.
  38. ^ "В Красноярске сошли с рельсов 8 вагонов" [8 Wagons Derailed in Krasnoyarsk]. Новые Времена. Archived from the original on 2022-07-16. Retrieved 2022-07-16.
  39. ^ "В Красноярском крае сошел с рельсов поезд" [Train Derailed in Krasnoyarsk Territory]. Новые Времена. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  40. ^ "В Махачкале "из-за аномальной жары" сошел с рельсов поезд" [Train Derailed in Makhachkala "Due to Abnormal Heat"]. newtimes.ru. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  41. ^ "Товарные вагоны на перегоне между Калмыкией и Дагестаном сошли с рельсов из-за диверсии – источник" [Freight cars on the haul between Kalmykia and Dagestan derailed due to sabotage - source]. RFE/RL (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  42. ^ "Активисты жд-сопротивления сообщили о сходе вагонов" [Railway Resistance Activists Report Derailment of Wagons]. Новые Времена (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  43. ^ Кочкина, Катерина (2022-03-13). "Поджоги военкоматов и железнодорожное сопротивление. Как действует антивоенное подполье в России" [Arson of military enlistment offices and railway resistance. How the anti-war underground operates in Russia]. Настоящее Время. Archived from the original on 2022-05-15. Retrieved 2022-05-16.
  44. ^ Ostrov, Georgiy (2022-05-12). "Russische Anti-Kriegs-Bewegung berichtet über Sabotage gegen Bahnstrecken" [Russian anti-war movement reports sabotage against railway lines]. Tichys Einblick (in German). Archived from the original on 2022-08-26. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  45. ^ "Daria Dugina's assassination could spell trouble for Putin's allies in Russia". NPR.org. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  46. ^ Mohammed Tawfeeq, Josh Pennington, Jonny Hallam, Tara John and Rob Picheta (21 August 2022). "Car bomb kills daughter of 'spiritual guide' to Putin's Ukraine invasion - Russian media". CNN. Retrieved 2022-08-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  47. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Russians Bankrolling Putin and Russia-Backed Influence Actors". U.S. Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  48. ^ "Ex-Russian MP claims Russian partisans responsible for Moscow car bomb". the Guardian. 2022-08-21. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  49. ^ "Знищення Дугіної. Насильницький супротив буде зростати, іншого шляху немає – Ілля Пономарьов" [Liquidation of Dugina: "Violent resistance will grow, there is no other way" Ilya Ponomarev]. YouTube. Радіо НВ.
  50. ^ Kadik, Lev (2022-05-22). "Заикнулись о вооруженной борьбе. "Спектр" понаблюдал за антивоенной конференцией Форума свободной России в Вильнюсе" [Hinting at armed struggle: Spektr watched the anti-war conference of the Free Russia Forum in Vilnius]. Спектр-Пресс (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-05-22. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  51. ^ a b "В РОССИИ СОЗДАНА НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ РЕСПУБЛИКАНСКАЯ АРМИЯ, ОСУЩЕСТВИВШАЯ ПОКУШЕНИЕ НА ДУГИНА" [Statement of The National Republican Army (NRA) OF 2022-08-21], Утро Февраля (in Russian), YouTube, archived from the original on 2022-08-31, retrieved 2022-08-21
  52. ^ "ЗАЯВЛЕНИЕ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКАНСКОЙ АРМИИ (НРА) ОТ 21.08.2022" [Statement of The National Republican Army (NRA) OF 2022-08-21]. Роспартизан (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-08-21. Retrieved 2022-08-21.
  53. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche, Nobody had previously ever heard of the National Republican Army: Prof. Sergey Radchenko | DW | 22.08.2022, retrieved 2022-08-23
  54. ^ Young, Cathy (2022-08-25). "The Dugina Killing Aftermath". The Bulwark. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  55. ^ "Russia accuses Ukraine of killing nationalist's daughter, Putin gives her award". Reuters. 2022-08-22. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  56. ^ "Russia blames Ukraine for nationalist's car bombing death". Washington Post. 22 August 2022.
  57. ^ Troianovski, Anton; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Gettleman, Jeffrey (21 August 2022). "Russia Opens Murder Investigation After Blast Kills Daughter of Putin Ally". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  58. ^ "A car bomb killed the daughter of a Putin ideologist Saturday. Ukraine denies involvement: 'We are not a criminal state like Russian Federation'". Fortune. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  59. ^ ERR, ERR, ERR News | (2022-08-23). "Minister: FSB claim of alleged assassin fleeing to Estonia is provocation". ERR. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  60. ^ "Заявление Российского комитета действия от 22 августа 2022 года" [Statement of the Russian Action Committee of August 22, 2022]. Комитет действия (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  61. ^ "Statement of the Russian Action Committee 22.08.2022". Russian Action Committee (in Russian and English). Archived from the original on 2022-08-23. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  62. ^ ""Борются только с теми, кого боятся": Телеграм заблокировал канал рельсовых партизан в России" [“They fight only with those they are afraid of”: Telegram blocks the channel of rail guerrillas in Russia]. Апостроф (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  63. ^ "Activatica". Activatica (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  64. ^ "Роскомнадзор заблокировал сайт движения "Останови вагоны"" [Roskomnadzor blocks the website of the movement "Stop the Wagons"]. DOXA News. 2022-07-18. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  65. ^ "Роскомнадзор заблокировал сайт движения "Останови вагоны"" [Roskomnadzor blocks the website of the "Stop the Wagons" movement]. The Village (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  66. ^ "Telegram оштрафовали на 7 млн рублей за отказ удалить инструкции по проведению диверсий" [Telegram fined 7 million rubles for refusing to remove sabotage instructions]. ТАСС (in Russian). 2022-08-16.
  67. ^ "Moscow Court Fines Telegram, Twitch For Failing To Delete 'Illegal' Content". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  68. ^ "Telegram fined for refusing to delete channel with sabotage instructions". TASS. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Overview
General
Prelude
Background
Foreign relations
Southern Ukraine
Eastern Ukraine
Kyiv
Northeastern Ukraine
Russian occupations
Ongoing
Previous
Strikes on military targets
Potentially related incidents
Other
General
Attacks on civilians
Attacks on prisoners of war
Legal cases
Reactions
States and
official entities
General
Ukraine
Russia
United States
Other countries
United Nations
International
organizations
Other
Public
Protests
Companies
Technology
Other
Impact
Effects
Human rights
Terms and phrases
Popular culture
Key people
Ukraine Ukrainians
Russia Russians
Other
  • Category
  • Commons
  • Meta-Wiki
  • v
  • t
  • e
Protests
Coat of Arms of Belarus
Annual
Organisations
Coordination
Council
Head
Presidium
NAM
Head
Leaders
United
Transitional
Cabinet
Head
Members
Other people
See also
  • v
  • t
  • e
Protests
Anti-Putin rally in Moscow 4 February 2012
Unrest
Annual
Coalitions
Organizations
Liberal
Left-wing
Nationalist
Other
People
Liberal
Left-wing
Nationalist
Films and books
Terms
Related