Demolition of monuments to Alexander Pushkin in Ukraine

An empty pedestal of the "sun of Russian poetry" in Ternopil

The demolition of monuments to dedicated to Russian poet and playwright Alexander Pushkin in Ukraine started during the Russo-Ukrainian War. Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, it has become a widespread phenomenon and dubbed by Ukrainians Pushkinopad (Ukrainian: Пушкінопад), a pun literally translated as "Pushkinfall", akin to the "Leninfall" during the decommunization process. This wave of dismantling is part of the process of derussification in Ukraine.

History and incidents

Ukrainian researcher Volodymyr Yermolenko claimed that Russian literature has been a "vehicle of the country’s imperial project and nationalist world-view," giving as examples Pushkin, Lermontov and Gogol.[1] He mentioned Pushkin's poem Poltava, which recounts the revolt of Ukrainian Cossack hetman Ivan Mazepa against Tsar Peter the Great during the Swedish invasion of Russia and portrays Mazepa – who had sided with the invading Swedes – as a lecherous traitor.[1] Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Pushkin's situation turned out to be quite similar to the destruction of monuments to Lenin known as Leninopad.[2] The phenomenon was dubbed "Pushkinopad" (Пушкінопад) by Ukrainians, a pun literally translated as "Pushkinfall", with the coinage of "-пад" being akin to English words suffixed with "fall" as in "waterfall", "snowfall", etc.

A bronze bust of Pushkin was removed from Glory Square (Ploshсha Slavy) in Kyiv. Erected in 1899, it was the oldest monument to Pushkin in the city.

The first event that became widely known was the dismantling of the monument to Pushkin in Mukachevo on April 7, 2022.[3] Monuments to the Russian poet were dismantled in Uzhhorod[4] and Ternopil on April 9.[5][6] Serhiy Nadal, mayor of Ternopil from the far-right Svoboda party, commented:

The crimes of Russians against the Ukrainian people: murder, torture of people, rape of women and children, destruction of Ukrainian cities have crossed out the entire culture of the Russian people. There is no explanation for these crimes. They leave us no choice. Everything Russian must be dismantled. Including the monument to the Russian writer.[7]

  • On March 22, 2022, a resident of Ternopil painted a Pushkin monument red and wrote "stop war" on it. In Ternopil, the monument to the poet was erected in 1961. The first initiatives to demolish it appeared in 2014, after the start of the Russo-Ukrainian War.[8]
  • On April 7, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was demolished in Mukachevo. The very next day, the Uzhhorod City Council also decided to dismantle the monument to Alexander Pushkin[9]
  • On April 11, 2022, a bust of Pushkin was dismantled in the village of Zabolotivtsi, Lviv Oblast.[10]
  • On April 19, 2022, in Kropyvnytskyi, they proposed to remove the monument to Pushkin, which currently stands near the Pedagogical University.[11] The monument was dismantled on July 8, 2022.[12]
  • On April 26, 2022, a monument to Alexander Pushkin was torn down in the village of Pushkino in the Berehove Raion of the Zakarpattia Oblast, and meetings began to rename the village.[13]
  • On April 28, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Konotop. The head was torn off during the dismantling of the monument.[14]
  • On April 30, 2022, a Pushkin monument was destroyed in Chernihiv.[15]
  • On May 5, 2022, a memorial plaque to Pushkin was dismantled in Vinnytsia.[16]
  • On May 21, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Mykolaiv.[18]
  • On June 1, 2022, a monument to Alexander Pushkin was damaged in Nikopol.[19]
  • On June 3, 2022, the "Ukrainian People's House" society proposed to remove the bust of Pushkin from the building of the Olha Kobylyanska Drama Theater in Chernivtsi and replace it with the bust of Yurii Fedkovych. The director of the theater supported the proposal but stressed that all legal requirements and regulations had to be met before removing the bust.[20]
  • On July 26, 2022, a bust of Pushkin was dismantled in Zaporizhzhia. The bust made of forged copper stood in the city for more than 20 years and was dismantled with the permission of the mayor's office.[22]
  • On September 1, 2022, a bust of Pushkin was dismantled in Kyiv on the territory of gymnasium No. 153 (named after Pushkin).[23]
  • On October 11, 2022, unknown persons dismantled the second bust of Pushkin in front of the National Transport University in Kyiv. The co-founder of the "Decommunization Ukraine" project said that the dismantling was dedicated to Lieutenant of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Denys Antipov, alias "Buk" – a well-known public activist, teacher of the Korean language at the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, who had died in May 2022 in a battle with Russian invaders.[24]
  • On November 9, 2022, a bust of Pushkin, which stood on Poetry Maidan in Kharkiv, was dismantled and sent for safekeeping. The Kharkiv City Council stated that this monument, and possibly others, should be preserved, but the residents will decide this issue in peacetime.[25][26][27]
  • On November 11, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Zhytomyr.[28]
  • On November 11, 2022, a monument to Pushkin in the city of Zhmerynka was dismantled.
  • On November 16, 2022, Pushkin Avenue in Dnipro was renamed Lesia Ukrainka Avenue.[29] A monument to Pushkin that stood there was dismantled on December 16, 2022.[29]
  • On November 17, 2022, a statue of Pushkin was dismantled in Chernivtsi.[30]
  • On November 20, 2022, unknown persons overthrew a bust of Pushkin in Nikopol.[31]
  • On November 21, 2022, a monument to Pushkin in Kremenchuk was dismantled.[32]
  • On November 29, 2022, a memorial plaque to Pushkin was dismantled in Mykolaiv.[33]
  • On November 29, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Ananiv.[34]
  • On December 9, 2022, the monument to Pushkin in the city of Tulchyn was dismantled.[35]
  • The monument to Pushkin in the Dnipro was dismantled on December 16, 2022.[35]
  • On December 23, 2022, the second sculpture of Pushkin was dismantled in the city of Chernivtsi.[36]
  • On December 24, 2022, it was dismantled in the city of Krolevets.[37]
  • On December 27, 2022, the bust of Pushkin was dismantled from the facade of the Chernivtsi Drama Theater named after Olha Kobylianska.[38]
  • On December 29, 2022, the bust was dismantled in Polonne.[39]
  • On December 29, 2022, the second memorial plaque to Pushkin was dismantled in the city of Mykolaiv.[citation needed]
  • On December 30, 2022, a monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Kramatorsk.[40]
  • In April 2023, the Poltava City Council voted to dismantle the monument to Pushkin in this city.[41] Also in April 2023, "Pushkin Park" was renamed "Family Park" in Kramatorsk.[42]
  • On May 3, 2023, (in its second reading) the Verkhovna Rada adopted the law "On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine On the Protection of Cultural Heritage" which legalized the removal of "Soviet and imperial cultural monuments" from the state register.[43]
  • On July 13, 2023, Pushkin Park in Kyiv was renamed Ivan Bahrianyi Park.[44] On 15 November 2023 the monument to Pushkin that had remained in the park was dismantled.[45]
  • On 23 October 2023 a theater in Kharkiv that was named after Pushkin dropped his mentioning in its name and was renamed to Kharkiv Academic Drama Theater.[46]
  • On 26 January 2024 the Kharkiv City Council renamed Khrakiv's Pushkinska street to Hryhorii Skovoroda street.[49] This was done in response to a 23 January 2024 Russian bombing of Kharkiv that cased 9 victims, including a 4-year-old child.[50] In the evening in particular, the central Pushkinska Street had been hit.[51]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Yermolenko, Volodymyr (25 June 2022). "From Pushkin to Putin: Russian Literature's Imperial Ideology". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  2. ^ Кокотюха, Андрій (2022-04-23). "Як Пушкін в Україні став аналогом Леніна". detector.media (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  3. ^ "У Мукачеві демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну" [The monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Mukachevo]. Ukrinform (in Ukrainian). 7 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-11.
  4. ^ Береза, Антуан (9 April 2022). "Дерусифікація триває: в Ужгороді демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну (відео)" [Derussification continues: Pushkin monument dismantled in Uzhhorod (video)]. УНІАН.
  5. ^ Свобода, Радіо (9 April 2022). "У Тернополі демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну – мер" [Pushkin monument dismantled in Ternopil - mayor]. Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-04-11.
  6. ^ "У Тернополі демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну" [Monument to Pushkin dismantled in Ternopil]. Ukrinform (in Ukrainian). 9 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-11.
  7. ^ "У Тернополі через звірства росіян таки демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну: фото" [Pushkin monument dismantled in Ternopil because of Russian atrocities: photos]. podiya.te.ua. 9 April 2022.
  8. ^ Бугаєнко, Тетяна (9 April 2022). "У Тернополі демонтували пам'ятник Алєксандру Пушкіну" [Monument to Alexander Pushkin dismantled in Ternopil]. ZAXID.NET.
  9. ^ Bugayenko, Tetyana (9 April 2022). "У Тернополі демонтували пам'ятник Алєксандру Пушкіну" [A monument to Alexander Pushkin was dismantled in Ternopil]. ZAXID.NET (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  10. ^ "У селі на Львівщині демонтують пам'ятник Пушкіну" [A monument to Pushkin is dismantled in a village in the Lviv Region]. zahid.espreso.tv. April 11, 2022.
  11. ^ "У Кропивницькому запропонували прибрати пам'ятник Пушкіну" [In Kropyvnytskyi, it was proposed to remove the monument to Pushkin]. Гречка - інформаційний портал кіровоградщини (in Ukrainian). April 19, 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  12. ^ "Як у Кропивницькому бюст Пушкіну знімали (ВІДЕО)" [How a bust of Pushkin was filmed in Kropyvnytskyi (VIDEO)]. Гречка. July 9, 2022.
  13. ^ "На Закарпатті "впав" вже шостий пам'ятник Пушкіну. Еспресо.Захід" [In Transcarpathia, the sixth monument to Pushkin "fell"]. zahid.espreso.tv (in Ukrainian). April 26, 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  14. ^ "Під час демонтажу відірвало голову: у Конотопі знесли пам'ятник Пушкіну (фото)" [A HEAD WAS TORN OFF DURING DISMANTLING: A MONUMENT TO PUSHKIN WAS DEMOLISHED IN KONOTOP (PHOTO)]. ТСН.ua (in Ukrainian). 2022-04-28. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  15. ^ Chernihiv was de-Russified by Pushkin, Ukrainska Pravda (April 30, 2022) Monument to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya was demolished in Chernihiv, Suspilne (April 21, 2022) (in Ukrainian)
  16. ^ "У ВІННИЦІ ЗНЯЛИ МЕМОРІАЛЬНУ ДОШКУ ПУШКІНУ" [A MEMORIAL PLAQUE TO PUSHKIN WAS REMOVED IN VINNYTSIA]. naparise.com. May 5, 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  17. ^ На Прикарпатті демонтували погруддя Пушкіна та комісара Руднєва
  18. ^ "У Миколаєві зусиллями невідомих зник пам'ятник Пушкіну (фото)". УНІАН (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-05-21.
  19. ^ "У Нікополі осквернили пам'ятник Пушкіну". Общественная Организация "Прихист" (in Russian). June 2022. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  20. ^ "Пушкіна на Федьковича: у Чернівцях пропонують замінити погруддя на будівлі драмтеатру" [From Pushkin to Fedkovych: in Chernivtsi, they propose to replace the bust on the drama theater building]. acc.cv.ua. 3 June 2022.
  21. ^ "Геть з класу! Зі шкільної програми вилучать більше 40 творів Пушкіна, Толстого, Булгакова та інших російських і радянських авторів". nv.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  22. ^ "У Запоріжжі демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну" [A monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Zaporizhzhia]. www.ukrinform.ua (in Ukrainian). 27 July 2022. Retrieved 2022-07-28.
  23. ^ Борзенко, Тимофій (1 September 2022). "У київській гімназії 153 імені Пушкіна знесли погруддя Пушкіна" [Pushkin's bust was demolished at the 153 Pushkin Gymnasium in Kyiv].
  24. ^ "У Києві демонтували один із пам'ятників Пушкіну, залишилося ще вісім об'єктів" [One of Pushkin's monuments dismantled in Kyiv, eight more objects left]. gordonua.com. 12 October 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  25. ^ "The monument to Pushkin in Kharkiv has been dismantled, its fate will be determined by the townspeople after the victory - the city council". Інтерфакс-Україна (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  26. ^ "Pushkin's bust was dismantled in Kharkiv". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  27. ^ "Як демонтували погруддя Пушкіна у Харкові — фото і відео міськради" [How Pushkin's bust was dismantled in Kharkiv — photo and video of the city council]. racurs.ua. November 9, 2022.
  28. ^ "Monument to Russian poet Pushkin dismantled in Zhytomyr". New Voice of Ukraine. 11 November 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  29. ^ a b "A monument to Pushkin was dismantled in Dnipro (photo)". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (in Ukrainian). 16 December 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  30. ^ Спатарь, Наталія (2022-11-17). "У Чернівцях демонтували пам'ятник Пушкіну — що відомо". Суспільне | Новини (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-11-17.
  31. ^ "У Нікополі впав пам'ятник поету". dv-gazeta.info (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  32. ^ "У Кременчуці знесли пам'ятник Пушкіну". Українська правда. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  33. ^ "У центрі Миколаєва демонтували меморіальну дошку Пушкіну". Українська правда (in Russian). 2022-11-29.
  34. ^ "Декомунізація. Україна. - Юхууууууу! Ананьїв, Одещина. Демонтовано погруддя Пушкіну. Далі буде. | Facebook". www.facebook.com (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-11-29.
  35. ^ a b Ковалишена, Юлія (9 December 2022). "Monuments to Suvorov and Pushkin were dismantled in Tulchyn". Суспільне | Новини (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-12-09.
  36. ^ "Чернівці позбулися Пушкіна: демонтовано другий пам'ятник". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-12-23.
  37. ^ "Декомунізація. Україна. - А це фотопідтвердження демонтованого погруддя Пушкіну у місті Кролевець на Сумщині. Потихеньку кількість подібного окупаційного мотлоху зменшується. | Facebook". www.facebook.com (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-12-27.
  38. ^ "В Черновцах с фасада театра демонтировали бюст Пушкина". РБК (in Russian). 27 December 2022. Retrieved 2022-12-30.
  39. ^ "Юхууууууу! Пушкінопад триває.... - Декомунізація. Україна". www.facebook.com (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-12-29.
  40. ^ Stanislav Pogorilov (30 December 2022). "Pushkinopad got to Kramatorsk: a bust of a Russian poet was demolished in the city". Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  41. ^ "Полтава вирішила знести пам'ятники двом радянським генералам і Пушкіну" [Poltava decided to demolish monuments to two Soviet generals and Pushkin]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 7 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
  42. ^ "In Kramatorsk, Plastova, Lubomyr Huzar and Kvitka Tsysyk streets appeared". Historical Pravda (in Ukrainian). 21 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  43. ^ "The Verkhovna Rada adopted the "Anti-Pushkin" law". Historical Pravda (in Ukrainian). 3 May 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  44. ^ "Without Pushkin, Krylov and Chkalov: 14 more objects were renamed in Kyiv". Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  45. ^ "Kyiv authorities dismantle controversial Pushkin statue". The Kyiv Independent. 15 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  46. ^ "Kharkiv got rid of the Pushkin Theater". Status Quo (in Ukrainian). 23 October 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  47. ^ "A bas-relief of Pushkin was removed from the metro station in Kharkiv (photo)". Status Quo (in Ukrainian). 12 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  48. ^ "Pushkin's works were removed from the Kharkiv metro (photo)". Status Quo (in Ukrainian). 12 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  49. ^ "Pushkinska in Kharkiv became Hryhoriy Skovoroda Street". Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 26 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  50. ^ "After the Russian shelling, the mayor of Kharkiv first proposed renaming Pushkinska Street". Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 24 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  51. ^ "After the Russian shelling, the mayor of Kharkiv first proposed renaming Pushkinska Street". Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 24 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.

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