Canada convoy protest
|Canada convoy protest|
|Part of COVID-19 protests in Canada|
Protesters in front of Parliament Hill on February 1, 2022 (top); Vehicles lined up on Wellington Street January 28 (bottom left); Supporters greet a truck on an overpass in Merritt, British Columbia (bottom right)
|Date||January 22, 2022 (2022-01-22) – February 23, 2022 (2022-02-23)|
(1 month and 1 day)
|Caused by||COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, COVID-19 vaccination mandates in Canada|
|Goals||Abolition of federal and provincial COVID-19 mandates in Canada|
|Methods||Convoy protest over major Canadian highways; demonstration at Parliament Hill|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Casualties, arrests and damages|
|Economic loss||Estimates of up to $6 billion|
A series of protests and blockades in Canada against COVID-19 vaccine mandates and restrictions, called the Freedom Convoy (French: Convoi de la liberté) by organizers, began in early 2022. The initial convoy movement was created to protest vaccine mandates for crossing the United States border, but later evolved into a protest about COVID-19 mandates in general. Beginning January 22, hundreds of vehicles formed convoys from several points and traversed Canadian provinces before converging on Ottawa on January 29, 2022, with a rally at Parliament Hill. The convoys were joined by thousands of pedestrian protesters. Several offshoot protests blockaded provincial capitals and border crossings with the United States.
In late 2021, both Canada and the US accommodated unvaccinated cross-border truckers exempting them from COVID-19 vaccine requirements, to prevent exacerbating existing supply chain disruptions. The exemptions in Canada ended on January 15, 2022, and the US exemption ended on January 22, 2022. Of the 120,000 Canadian licensed truck drivers who regularly serve cross-border routes, approximately 85 per cent were already vaccinated against COVID-19 by January. An estimated 12,000 to 16,000 Canadian truckers could be affected.
Protesters occupied the downtown core of Ottawa and stated that they would not leave until all COVID-19 restrictions and mandates were repealed. Officials expressed concern about the economic impact of border blockades. On February 11, Ontario Premier Doug Ford declared a state of emergency, introducing new legal sanctions on the impediment of trade routes, highways, airports, ports, bridges and railways. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and US President Joe Biden spoke on February 11 to discuss ending blockades at the border. On February 14, Trudeau invoked the Emergencies Act for the first time since its passing in 1988.[d] Between February 17 and 20, a large joint-operation police presence in Ottawa arrested organizers and protesters, removed parked vehicles, and dismantled blockades from Ottawa streets. By February 21, most of the protesters had been cleared from Ottawa.
The convoy was condemned by trucking industry and labour groups. The Canadian Trucking Alliance stated that most protesters had no connection to trucking. Near a blockade in Coutts, Alberta, multiple weapons were seized and four men charged with conspiracy to commit murder of Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers. Officials raised concerns of some protesters' involvement with far-right extremist groups, including those promoting violence, and that some protesters called for the federal government of Canada to be overthrown. Some sources have called the protests an occupation or a siege.
The protest called for the end of vaccine mandates in Canada during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Freedom Convoy's spokesperson Ben Dichter stated on Fox News that "We want to get rid of the vaccine mandates and the (vaccine) passports. And that passport, that's the really concerning one".
The organizers of the original mid-January crowdsourced fundraising campaign on GoFundMe, Tamara Lich and Dichter both of whom are not long-haul truckers, described the goal of the truck convoy from all across Canada to the nation's capital, as a demonstration against the newly implemented January 15 federal cross-border COVID-19 vaccine mandate, targeting long-haul truck drivers, according to a January 28, 2022 CTV News article.
As the convoy reached Ontario, it attracted a coterie of hangers-on and they used their moment in the sun to detract from its original goals. Several protesters voiced opposition to perceived authoritarianism and corruption by Justin Trudeau, stating they wanted him "out of office", while others said: "This is not an anti-vaccination movement, this is a freedom movement". For example, Canada Unity's Ontario organizer for the convoy Jason LaFace said that the intent of the Canada Unity protest was to dissolve the federal government. Many of the restrictions that the protesters objected to are under provincial jurisdiction.
One of the main organizers behind the convoy, Canada Unity (CU), acknowledged that they had planned to submit their signed "memorandum of understanding" to the Senate of Canada and Governor General Mary Simon, described in the memorandum as the "SCGGC". The memorandum, which was signed by James Bauder, his wife Sandra and Martin Brodmann, was posted on the Canada Unity website in mid-December 2021 and publicly available until its February 8 retraction. Bauder, whose name is at the top of a CTV News' list of "major players" in the convoy, is the founder of Canada Unity. CTV cited Bauder saying that he hoped the signed memorandum would convince Elections Canada to trigger an election, which is not constitutionally possible. In this pseudolegal document, CU called on the "SCGGC" to cease all vaccine mandates, reemploy all employees terminated due to vaccination status, and rescind all fines imposed for non-compliance with public health orders. If this failed, the memorandum called on the "SCGGC" to dissolve the government, and name members of the CU to form a Canadian Citizens Committee, which is beyond the constitutional powers of either the Governor General or the Senate. The original memorandum contained no specific mention of cross-border truckers as it had originally been drafted and delivered over a month earlier, but then was reissued for the protest. By February 8, there were 320,089 of the 1,000,000 signatures on the memorandum Canada Unity had hoped for. A February 8 article in The Guardian, on how the convoy was the result of coordination between QAnon, conspiracy theorists, "unprecedented coordination between various anti-vaccine and anti-government organizations", including Bauder's vow that the protesters would remain until all their demands were met. Organizers felt a groundswell of fresh support for the MoU could trigger a new federal election, and investigations into Prime Minister Trudeau. When questioned in a February 3 Power & Politics interview by a CBC reporter, on whether he would negotiate with the core organizers knowing purpose as stated in the memorandum, Conservative MP Kevin Waugh dismissed the memorandum as "nonsense" saying the organizers are "frustrated like many Canadians in this country".
Tom Marazzo, a self-declared spokesperson for the protest and an ex-military officer, held a press conference on February 7, proposing the formation of a coalition with the Conservatives, NDP, and Bloc Quebecois.
Ottawa's police chief, Peter Sloly, described a "significant element" of American involvement in the organization and funding of the convoys. Some of the donors participating in the protest's GoFundMe campaign were from the United States, and many used false names or remained anonymous. The polarization of American politics meant that Obama-era Democratic operatives like Bruce Heyman and Brett Bruen saw Donald Trump's hand in the mess as quoted in an article by news syndicate The Canadian Press.
CBC News and The New York Times described the protests as a "cause célèbre" for the American right. The convoys and protests were widely praised and promoted by American conservative political figures, who have been accused of propagating exaggerated claims about the protest, or making unfounded claims about the roles and actions of Canadian authorities and politicians with respect to the protest. The protest was endorsed by Trump, who, during his time in power, had regularly clashed with Trudeau over policy differences. In response to the convoy, Trump referred to Trudeau as a "far left lunatic" who "has destroyed Canada", and invited protesters to organize on Truth Social, his proposed social network. Various commentators have called the Freedom Convoy an example of Canadian Trumpism.
Mark Carney, former Governor of the Bank of Canada, strongly criticized the foreign involvement in "the sedition in Ottawa," describing donors as "foreign funders of an insurrection" who had "interfered in our domestic affairs".
Fundraising started on January 14, 2022, through the crowdsourced fundraising platform GoFundMe. Listed as organizers were Tamara Lich, secretary of the western separatist Maverick Party, and B. J. Dichter, a 2015 federal Conservative Party candidate now associated with the People's Party of Canada. The Maverick Party has denied involvement in the convoy and said it was not the recipient of any funds raised.
The convoy's GoFundMe raised over CA$5 million by January 25. On January 24, GoFundMe responded to questions by CTV News stating funds raised would not be distributed until the fundraising organizers could demonstrate how the funds would be properly distributed. On January 27, GoFundMe released the initial CA$1 million of the funds after the organizers had provided a distribution plan.
On February 2 GoFundMe flagged the fundraiser for review and paused donations, saying it was investigating to ensure the fundraiser was in compliance with the platform's terms of service. The fundraiser had raised CA$10,096,500 from approximately 120,000 donors. On February 3, the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security (SECU) called on GoFundMe officials to testify before it, in order to respond to concerns about the origin of the funds raised and to ensure they would not be used to "promote extremism". Members of Parliament also called on the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), Canada's financial intelligence agency, to appear before the committee. CBC News reported that a third of the donations were anonymous or used false names for the publicly visible part of the campaign in a futile attempt aimed to prevent Doxxing, and that commenters on the fundraiser claimed to be from the United States, United Kingdom, and other countries.
On the evening of February 4, GoFundMe removed the campaign permanently for violating their terms of service, specifically "because the protest violates its rules on violence and harassment."
The Attorney General of Ontario sought and was granted an Ontario Superior Court of Justice court order under Section 490.8 of the Criminal Code of Canada against GiveSendGo, to freeze the funds collected from two campaigns, "Freedom Convoy 2022"—US$8.4 million and "Adopt-a-Trucker"—over $686,000, and prohibit their distribution. The court order binds "any and all parties with possession or control over these donations". The Mareva injunction was issued on February 17 by Justice Calum MacLeod. GiveSendGo funds go directly to campaign recipients such as The Freedom Convoy campaign, so Canadian banks cannot interfere. The largest donation, which was anonymous, as were six of the other top ten, was US$215,000. The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance (FINA) members, who are investigating Freedom Convoy's fundraising, voted on February 10 to include a study of the "rise of ideologically motivated extremism". The FINA Committee invited GiveSendGo to testify.
The RCMP stated that it has not shared donor lists with financial institutions, only the names of those who were "influencers in the illegal protest in Ottawa, and owners and/or drivers of vehicles who did not want to leave the area impacted by the protest." The statement came after Conservative MPs including Mark Strahl made claims that constituents have had their accounts frozen for small donations, such as the purchase of a convoy T-shirt. The Conservative leadership asked MPs to verify claims before posting them, in an internal memo.
In response to the efforts taken to block protestors from accessing funds via GoFundMe and other methods, reports surfaced of Bitcoin being used as an alternative source for fundraising. Individual protestors have been reported as receiving bitcoin, sometimes as much as US$8,000 equivalent. Of the protestors and the new interest in bitcoin among average Canadians, the journalist stated, "...institutions can be directed to shut off financial access to enemies of the state. This has traditionally been 'rogue' nations and terrorist outfits, but Canada decided to expand this net to include the hundreds of thousands of normal Canadians who oppose government lockdowns and mandates."
An Ontario Superior Court judge extended the freeze on funds until at least March 9, as of February 28.
Donor list hacked
On February 13, 2022, the GiveSendGo website was hacked and its data on donations was released to journalists and researchers. Four days later it was revealed that the hacker who had claimed credit, Aubrey Cottle, had been threatened with murder. In the meantime, GiveSendGo had contacted the Federal Bureau of Investigations to see if he could be prosecuted. Of the 92,845 donations, 55.7 per cent of donors were from the United States, and 39 per cent from Canada. Many of the American donors' names correspond to the names of Donald Trump donors. The hack also revealed that one $90,000 donation allegedly came from American software billionaire Thomas Siebel. Some members of the Ontario Provincial Police were revealed to have donated to the convoy on GiveSendGo, prompting the OPP to launch an internal conduct investigation.
The American publication Politico reported that American right-wing commentators Dan Bongino and Ben Shapiro were among personalities directing support to the Canadian movement's crowdfunding websites. Based on research by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, from January 28 to February 5, a link to the original Freedom Convoy GoFundMe campaign was posted at least two dozen times on 4chan. According to Politico, white supremacist channels on Telegram also repeatedly shared the link.
Once the Emergencies Act had been invoked, all crowdfunding platforms or payment providers hosting fundraising related to the convoy were required to register with the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada. Banks were given the power to freeze accounts of those suspected to be involved in the blockades.
On March 3, GoFundMe executive Juan Benitez testified to the House of Commons that 86 per cent of the donors to the original GoFundMe campaign were Canadian, and 88 per cent of the donated funds to the original campaign were from Canadians. Benitez added that GoFundMe did not identify any donors to the campaign that were affiliated with terrorist or organized crime groups.
Vaccine mandates and passports
In late November 2021 during the fifth wave of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the highly-contagious Omicron variant doubled in less than two days, resulting in an extremely high number of patients (mainly the unvaccinated) requiring hospital care.
In a February 11 Bloomberg News interview with Canadian Labour Minister, Seamus O'Regan, Amanda Lang said that "a lot of the mandates being protested here are [not federal but] provincial mandates". O'Regan clarified that " jurisdiction is clearly laid out in our Constitution" which describes the separation of powers and jurisdictional mandates and authority at federal, provincial and territorial levels. O'Regan said that Canadians were already tired after two years of the pandemic, with some even struggling; Christmas lockdowns prevented many family reunions, yet most Canadians followed health protocols. There were only 13 per cent of Canadians who were unvaccinated as of January 12. In the province of Quebec, the unvaccinated accounted for 50 per cent of hospitalizations by February 7. Canada's chief public health officer, Theresa Tam, reported that the average daily case count had increased by 65 per cent since the previous week, "with a daily average of 42,000 new cases". Some provincial and territorial governments imposed "tougher lockdowns" to attempt to slow the spread. By the time cases began to decline in late January, an estimated 20 to 25 per cent of Canadians had been infected. In January, the number of new Omicron infections had peaked, according to a February 4 Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) announcement.
A January 27, 2022 CTV News explainer provided an update on current "vaccine mandates and public health restrictions" across Canada as background for the convoy. These mandates and restrictions "fall under provincial and territorial jurisdiction" and most are "not federal responsibilities". Regulations regarding international borders are reciprocal; they are enacted and enforced by both countries who share the border, involving federal agencies including Transport Canada, and in the United States, Homeland Security and CDC.
Under the Constitution Act, health is the responsibility of the provinces and territories; the federal government transfers public funds to the provinces and territories to ensure Medicare is universally accessible.: 81 COVID-19-related responses, including those related to vaccinations, like all healthcare in Canada under the Canada Health Act, are the responsibility of provinces and territories who provide free health services in their own jurisdictions. There were no mandates or passports until the fourth wave when the highly contagious Delta variant spread rapidly across Canada. By mid-August 2021, there was an emerging patchwork of vaccine mandates, including those implemented by private facilities. As most of the deaths caused by COVID-19 at that time were among seniors, private long-term care facilities began to mandate vaccinations for staff by late August. In the first lawsuit against an employer who mandated vaccinations, on November 9, 2021, the arbitrator, Von Veh, upheld the company's mandatory vaccination policy, and dismissed the grievance. At the federal level, dialogues were undertaken with other Group of Seven nations, the World Health Organization, and the International Civil Aviation Organization regarding passports—"reliable and secure" "proof of vaccination credentials".
Vaccination requirements for US–Canada cross-border travel
These new United States Department of Homeland Security regulations, released in October 2021, were regarding cross-border travel between the Canada and the United States and were based on guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To prevent supply chain disruptions, the DHS allowed for a window of four months—until January 22, 2022—for Canadian truckers to get fully vaccinated against COVID-19. On November 19, 2021, the Public Health Agency of Canada announced upcoming adjustments to Canada's border measures. This would include the requirement for essential service providers, including truck drivers, to be fully vaccinated after January 15, 2022. The announcement clarified that unvaccinated or partially vaccinated foreign national truck drivers would be prohibited from entering Canada after that date. Unvaccinated Canadian truck drivers could enter Canada but would have to quarantine for two weeks. According to the Canadian Press and CBC, as of January 22, the mandates would impact an estimated 26,000 unvaccinated truckers of the 160,000 truck drivers who regularly cross the border in both the United States and Canada. When asked in the House of Commons to produce data linking truckers to COVID-19 infections in Canada, neither the minister of health Jean-Yves Duclos nor the chief public health officer Theresa Tam were able to do so.
A October 21, 2021, federal briefing said that the provinces and territories—who hold all of the vaccination information—are responsible for providing the vaccine passport that Canadians needed to travel internationally, using "existing provincial proof of vaccination systems". By 2022, all provinces and territories had "vaccine passports with the QR code that meets the recommended Canadian standard for domestic and international travel". There is no federal mandate for COVID-19 vaccines in Canada. With healthcare capacity spread "too thin" during the "rising fifth wave driven by the Omicron variant" in early January 2022, federal Health Minister Jean-Yves Duclos's suggestion of mandatory COVID-19 vaccines was rejected by Alberta Premier Jason Kenney, whose government had removed the "power of mandatory vaccination from the province's Public Health Act, to ensure there could not be a vaccine mandate.
Since October 29, proof of vaccination has been mandatory for employees of federal public services and federally-regulated industries including banking. By early January, in these public sectors, those "without proof, or an exemption on medical or religious grounds, has been put on unpaid leave". Since the end of October, Canadians who wish to travel domestically on cruise ships or by VIA Rail trains have been required to prove they are fully vaccinated or have a negative COVID-19 tests.
The January 15 enforcement of the vaccination requirement applies to truckers who are entering Canada at international border crossings. Since January 15, unvaccinated American cross-border truckers have been denied entry into Canada. Canadian truckers who are not fully vaccinated "have to show proof of a negative PCR test collected within 72 hours of arriving at the border"; they also "need to quarantine after arrival".
Unvaccinated Canadian truckers can still work in Canada, unless their individual employer requires vaccination. As of January 5, the federal government had announced plans for a vaccine mandate for federally-regulated domestic fleets that cross provincial borders. At that time no final date was set for those rules.
A widely-shared January 12 miscommunication sent to the media from a Canada Border Services Agency spokesperson, that erroneously announced that the anticipated January 15 cross-border trucker vaccine mandate would not come into effect, was immediately retracted as an error. The "botched messaging" created "chaos and confusion."
A reciprocal vaccination requirement for the cross-border trucking industry has been in place since January 22, when the United States enforced theirs, affecting unvaccinated American truckers returning to the United States. Unvaccinated Canadian truckers are denied entry to the United States. In a February 11 update, federal Health Minister Jean-Yves Duclos alongside Dr. Tam, said that the worst was behind us, most new cases were community-driven, and cross-border restrictions were less effective. Duclos announced an update on health restrictions in the following week.
Of the total number of 160,000 licensed truck drivers who serve cross-border routes, 120,000 are Canadian and 40,000 are American. Of the 120,000 Canadian truckers, Canadian Trucking Alliance estimates that 85 per cent are already vaccinated against COVID-19, and that "as many as 12,000 to 16,000" Canadian truckers may not may not be able to work those cross-border routes because they are unvaccinated. In total, including the potential American cross-border truckers, these mandates could result in 26,000 of the 160,000 drivers in both countries who have been regularly running cross-border routes, losing that privilege.
Convoy to Ottawa
The first convoy departed Prince Rupert on January 22, arriving in Prince George in the evening. The following day, another convoy left from Delta with supporters gathering along Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway.
On January 24, a convoy drove through Regina, Saskatchewan, and was greeted by supporters. According to police in Regina, about 1,200 vehicles reached the city. On January 25, another convoy passed through Kenora, Ontario, where Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) in contact with the convoy stated that 200–300 vehicles would be passing through Kenora. The convoys consisted of three main routes across Canada, which would converge for the Ottawa protest on the weekend. The Ottawa Police Service estimated up to 2,000 demonstrators in the city on the weekend.
As of January 26, the OPP estimated approximately 400 vehicles had entered Ontario from the Manitoba border as part of the eastbound convoy. The Kingston Police estimated approximately 300 vehicles (17 full tractor-trailers, 104 tractors without trailers, 424 passenger vehicles and six RVs) to go through Kingston.
On January 27, David Akin, a reporter for Global News, tweeted that a convoy that had arrived that day in Thunder Bay from Winnipeg consisted of 113 commercial vehicles and 276 personal vehicles, citing the OPP. Winter weather closed a portion of Highway 17, (the main route of the Trans-Canada) in northern Ontario, causing the eastbound convoy to be divided. Some of the truckers continued on to Sault Ste. Marie, while others diverted to Highway 11 (a northern branch of the TCH) and drove toward Cochrane. Also on January 27, a fatal crash occurred near Chatham, Ontario. OPP officers later identified the convoy movement as a contributing factor to the incident.
Truckers from the Maritime provinces planned to meet in Moncton before departing for Ottawa. On the morning of January 27, supporters gathered in Enfield, Nova Scotia, where fireworks were set off as 10 to 15 trucks departed for the New Brunswick border. RCMP in PEI reported that approximately 70 trucks and supporters' vehicles crossed the Confederation Bridge into New Brunswick, but that most immediately turned around and returned to the island. About 24 trucks reportedly passed through Fredericton in the afternoon, bound for Ottawa. On January 27, one convoy group passed through the Greater Toronto Area. Hundreds of protesters gathered at highway overpasses in support of the convoy.
On January 28, the province of Nova Scotia banned gatherings along highways, specifically on the Trans-Canada (Highway 104) between the Nova Scotia and New Brunswick border, in relation to protests related to the freedom convoy.
Peak size of Parliament Hill demonstration
According to the Ottawa Police Service, crowd estimates ranged from 5,000 to 18,000 protesters on January 29, dwindling to approximately 3,000 demonstrators the following day. By February 1, they estimated as few as 250 protesters remained.
On February 9, CNN's Daniel Dale fact-checked numerous claims about the protests in general. Dale echoed the previous claims by police, adding that there was also an estimated 200 vehicles from the Atlantic provinces.
Some Facebook posts claimed as many as 50,000 trucks would be participating in the convoys. On his blog, Fox News commentator Sean Hannity reported that the convoy was made up of 10,000 heavy trucks, and Joe Warmington of the Toronto Sun reported that the event may set a Guinness World Record for the largest truck convoy on record. These claims were grossly exaggerated. Claims that the truck convoy "made the Guinness Book of World Records" are also false; the current record is 480 trucks, set in Cairo, Egypt in 2020, and the Freedom Convoy did not submit an application for an attempt at setting a new record.
Desecration and community harassment
Various images of specific acts during January 29 received wide condemnation. Protesters were seen drinking and dancing on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the National War Memorial. Chief of the Defence Staff Gen. Wayne Eyre described it as a desecration, and the Royal Canadian Legion condemned the actions. A statue of cancer fundraiser Terry Fox was decorated with an upside-down Canadian flag and a protest sign. The Terry Fox Foundation said Fox "believed in science and gave his life to help others". Images of a Canadian flag marked with a swastika were seen, as were Confederate flags. The statue was cleaned later by other protesters.
Some protesters harassed volunteers at a local soup kitchen, the Shepherds of Good Hope, demanding free food intended for Ottawa's homeless population. The kitchen tweeted: "One member of our shelter community was assaulted by protesters. A security guard went to his aid and was threatened and called racial slurs." Its press release said trucks were towed after blocking its ambulance drop-off zone for around half a day.
Ottawa protests and entrenchment
A Globe and Mail article entitled "Officials condemn 'desecration' of monuments, hateful signs on display at trucker convoy protest" also described the January 29 protest as having a "party-like atmosphere" with some handing out coffee, cookies, "drinking beer and smoking marijuana". Ottawa Police reported de-escalating multiple "high-risk situations" making no arrests.
On January 30, Ottawa Police launched a criminal investigation into the desecration of the National War Memorial and statue of Terry Fox. They will also be investigating "threatening/illegal/intimidating behaviour" toward police officers, workers and other private citizens. Also on January 30, OPS Chief of Police Peter Sloly said: "I think the only thing we can say for sure we're still going to be dealing with some level of traffic disruption and demonstration over the next 24 hours."
During this first weekend of protest in Ottawa, the city's COVID-19 wastewater signal indicated a sharp increase in COVID-19 cases, suggesting a possible link between the gathering of protesters and the spread of COVID-19.
A January 31 press conference was held at an undisclosed location, open only to invited right-wing outlets.
The House of Commons resumed on January 31, after the holiday break.
On January 31, Ottawa Paramedics announced that protesters had thrown rocks at an ambulance over the course of the weekend and called paramedics racial slurs. Paramedics had treated 19 people over the course of the weekend, mostly due to alcohol-related intoxication.
On the afternoon of January 31, Sloly said that "The situation of the demonstration has scaled down over the last 12 hours" and that "We want that trend to continue until this demonstration comes to a complete end. I cannot guarantee you that right now but I can guarantee that every effort at negotiation, coordination, de-escalation, has continued throughout the last four days and will continue until the complete end of this demonstration."
On February 1, large downtown Ottawa amenities like Rideau Centre and the National Arts Centre continued to stay closed due to security concerns. Ottawa police set up a hotline for hate-motivated crimes to be reported. On the night of February 1, Ottawa Police said that about 250 protesters remained around and on Parliament Hill.
A video circulated showing protesters appropriating First Nations drumming while dancing, drinking beer, and chanting "yabba dabba doo" and "fuck Trudeau". Senator and Mi'kmaq leader Brian Francis tweeted: "I am disgusted, appalled and saddened. This blatant act of racism must be vehemently condemned by all. Drumming is sacred to all First Nations. Our ways of life should never be mimicked, mocked and appropriated for political or other gain." The Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation, whose traditional unceded territory includes the city of Ottawa, issued a statement condemning protesters who held an Indigenous pipe ceremony and set up a tepee in the city's Confederation Park without the First Nation's permission on February 2.
On February 2, organizers of the protest said that they would not leave Ottawa until governments across Canada "end all mandates associated with COVID-19" and will stay "as long as it takes for freedom to be restored".
On February 3, the protesters started building a wooden structure in Confederation Park and gathering fuel supplies. Social media reports suggested that the structure is intended to serve as a community kitchen for the protesters.
On February 6, Ottawa Police promised to increase enforcement on protesters, including handing out tickets and arresting anyone who attempts to bring material aid, such as fuel, to protesters. A state of emergency was declared by the City of Ottawa on the same day. In a statement, the city said that its declaration "reflects the serious danger and threat to the safety and security of residents posed by the demonstrations and highlights the need for support from other jurisdictions and levels of government".
On the evening of February 6, Police performed a raid on a stockpile hub of supplies for protesters, seizing fuel and making two arrests for mischief.
An emergency debate of the House of Commons was held on the night of February 7, at the request of NDP leader Jagmeet Singh. Trudeau stated that the convoy is "trying to blockade our economy, our democracy and our fellow citizens' daily lives. It has to stop." Transport minister Omar Alghabra used the debate to encourage Ontario Premier Doug Ford to use regulatory powers to discourage the occupation, such as suspending commercial licences or insurance of the truckers.
As of February 7, the Children's Aid Society (CAS) was working with the OPS to ensure the welfare and safety of the children who are living in about 25 per cent of the 418 convoy trucks, according to Ottawa Police Deputy Chief Steve Bell. Concerns were raised about sanitation, noise levels, and fumes. According to the Canadian Press, there were about 100 children living in the convoy trucks as of February 8. Bell said that the presence of children is an "important factor" complicating a "challenging operation".
By February 9, people with police, military and survivalist experience had helped the protesters set up camp with tents and wooden kitchens, creating a supply chain to ensure continued protest. The logistic centre at the Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton Park (RCGP) baseball stadium includes trailers of food, tents, toilets and distribution points for gasoline and propane. The Freedom Convoy's head of security and spokesman is Daniel Bulford, a former RCMP officer who served on Prime Minister Trudeau's security detail. Police on Guard, a Facebook group of about 100 police officers, mainly retired, and 50 soldiers endorse the convoy. Two serving members of the Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) are under investigation for alleged involvement.
On February 10, leaders of the Freedom Convoy declared February 11 an "orange shirt day" and called for student walkouts to end COVID-19 restrictions in schools. Indigenous leaders condemned this announcement as misappropriation.
On Day 15, February 11, Doug Ford declared a state of emergency in Ontario as protesters continued to occupy the Ambassador Bridge, while Ford referred to the situation in downtown Ottawa as a "siege". By February 12, police had cleared trucks from the bridge, with busloads of police, some with heavy weapons, and an armoured vehicle.
By day 14, February 10, the newest tactic was "convoy circles". Ottawa-Centre MPP Joel Harden noted that a "convoy organizer" had been encouraging protesters to form them around public schools in Ottawa. A group of about 60 convoy vehicles headed to the Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport at 8 a.m., slow-circling it, honking and blocking traffic until about 10 a.m., then returned to their Coventry Road, one of three Ottawa protest encampments. Chief Stoly said many "vexatious calls" from the United States to 9-1-1 flooded the system and endangered lives.
Mayor Watson sent a letter to Tamara Lich and Keith Wilson to negotiate terms with protesters. On February 13 afternoon, Mayor Watson's Office said that they had reached an agreement with protesters limiting the protest perimeter to "Wellington Street, between Elgin Street and the Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway" to "reduce pressure on residents and businesses". Truckers will leave residential neighbourhoods.
On February 15, Ottawa Police Chief Peter Sloly resigned after weeks of criticism aimed at his handling of the protests.
Organizers Chris Barber and Tamara Lich were each arrested on February 17. Lich's bank account had previously been frozen. Organizer Pat King was later arrested on February 18, and an Alberta woman in the convoy, Kerry Komix, offered $50,000 for bail. The Crown lawyer noted that allowing her to act as surety was like "one thief being tasked to supervise another burglar." Komix was listed as the co-creator of a crypto donation platform. King was denied bail on February 25, after the presiding Justice ruled that Komix was not suitable surety, and expressed concern that King had a high risk of reoffending. On February 28, a convoy leader from High Prairie, Alberta named Tyson 'Freedom George' Billings was denied bail.
Various nearby rural areas became new encampments for the protesters. More than fifty trucks moved to a truck stop in Champlain Township, near Vankleek Hill, immediately following the Ottawa clearance. In interviews, those at the site mention plans to continue the convoy, with no specifics. Sites have also opened in Trent Lakes and near Kinburn, in West Carleton-March Ward. (Protesters originally intended to use the Arnprior Airport.) As of February 17, 2022, a farm in Russell Township, outside of Embrun, continued to be used by truckers as a convoy base camp. The Ontario Provincial Police is monitoring the site. As of February 20, the site near Kinburn remained active. Prime Minister Trudeau has commented, saying the groups were showing a "desire or an openness" to return. "A few days" before February 21, a convoy from Fort McMurray, Alberta was turned away at the Manitoba border. At a special meeting of the Ottawa Police Services Board on February 24, Acting Chief Bell feels the Highway Traffic Act and other laws would be enough to manage a possible return, despite removal of the Emergencies Act.
On March 5, a human chain was formed along Wellington Street, as a "freedom protest." Some later relocated to the Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, demanding Lich and King be released. Ottawa residents protested the delayed police response.
On January 29, the date that the Freedom Convoy arrived in Ottawa, a group of truckers blockaded the Sweetgrass–Coutts Border Crossing—one of the busiest ports of entry west of the Great Lakes which connects Sweet Grass, Montana, via US Interstate 15 with the village of Coutts, Alberta, via Alberta Highway 4. The United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service is located at this crossing, making it the principal port of entry for Alberta's large meat industry, and one of three main points where all meat products from the rest of western Canada cross the border, according to the Canadian Meat Council. The group of around 100 protesters demanded an end to all COVID-19 restrictions. The blockade, which extended about 2 km (1.2 mi) into Canada, also blocked public and emergency vehicle access to the village of Coutts, prompting condemnation from the town's mayor. Alberta Premier Jason Kenney called the blockade illegal, and threatened that protesters would face penalties under the province's Critical Infrastructure Defence Act.
Alberta RCMP initially negotiated with protesters for a peaceful end to the blockade, and protesters agreed to release about 50 vehicles trapped on Highway 4 and US Interstate 15. On February 1, police ceased negotiations and demanded that protesters leave the highway, and set up a police roadblock on Highway 4 about 20 km (12 mi) north of Coutts. A few vehicles left, most remained, and several incidents of violence against police and civilians were reported, including protesters ramming RCMP vehicles. Some vehicles wanting to join the blockade evaded the RCMP roadblock by driving through a ditch and drove south in the highway's northbound lanes, resulting in a head-on collision. The two men involved in the collision were taken to hospital.
On February 14, RCMP stepped in and arrested 13 people, seizing long guns, handguns, body armour, a large amount of ammunition and high capacity magazines. Four men were subsequently charged with conspiracy to murder RCMP officers.
The border crossing was reopened on February 15.
Protesters at the Ambassador Bridge, connecting Windsor, Ontario, with Detroit, Michigan, and one of the busiest international border crossings in North America, blockaded the border crossing on February 7. On the evening of February 7, movement at the bridge came to a complete halt. The blockade continued into February 8. On the morning of February 8, officials declared the bridge reopened, but the blockade resumed, pushing trips to the Blue Water Bridge connecting Sarnia and Port Huron.
Supply shortages caused by the blockade led to work shortages at Ford Motor Company's assembly plants in Oakville and in Lansing, Michigan, and shut down its Windsor plant. Parts manufacturers for Chrysler were also shut down, and on February 10, Toyota revealed that its three Ontario plants could not produce vehicles for the rest of the week. The Bank of Canada warned that the blockade could have a "measurable impact" on the Canadian economy.
On the morning of February 12, aided by Ontario Provincial Police and the RCMP, Windsor Police began to clear out the blockade using new powers. Despite the heavy police presence, by the end of the day on February 12, most protesters remained, although had been pushed much further from the bridge. Police arrested two individuals, towed seven vehicles and issued eleven tickets.
On the morning of February 13, joint police forces took control of the area and began to make arrests. In the late evening of February 13, the Ambassador Bridge had fully reopened. 42 arrests were made in total, with 37 vehicles seized.
Windsor Police requested resources from other police organizations on February 9, 2022, after the number of participants climbed to around 100, with between 50 – 70 vehicles. Windsor, Ontario, where the convoy blocked the Ambassador Bridge, intervened in an action by automobile manufacturers in Superior Court for an injunction. Mayor Drew Dilkens declared his intention to clear the bridge with the assistance of police reinforcements. An injunction was granted February 11 effective 7 p.m. A deadline of midnight was set. Local police were to be employed to clear the bridge.
At 9 a.m., police from several Ontario cities, including London, Ontario, were at the bridge in force together with buses and tow trucks, an armored personnel carrier, and a sniper. The Windsor police announced via Twitter that enforcement had begun. Some protestors, after discussion with police, had peacefully departed with their vehicles. The police, from Windsor and 5 other jurisdictions, succeeded in clearing the area of tractor-trailers, but a large crowd gathered in the area; the crowd was peaceful, even festive, singing the national anthem, but the bridge remained closed. The police maintained a strong presence in the area, but did not attempt mass arrests. In the evening one arrest was made.
The protesters were completely cleared by February 13 at approximately 8 a.m, although the border was not immediately opened. The bridge re-opened Sunday evening with 25 to 30 people arrested and 12 small vehicles seized. There was a substantial police presence and Jersey barriers were installed to keep the three-mile long access road to the bridge open. On February 16, police intercepted a convoy of six or seven trucks 250 kilometres (160 mi) away from Windsor — heading towards the city after leaving Ottawa.
Participants and response
In the lead-up to the planned arrival in Ottawa, it was reported on January 25 that far-right and white supremacist groups were hoping for violence on Parliament Hill akin to the 2021 United States Capitol attack. This has caused organizer Tamara Lich to address convoy members and denounce political violence, saying that protesters should "hold a peaceful protest" instead. Organizers and leaders of the convoy condemned extremist groups, and asked that participants report lawbreakers to the police. They also stated that any extremists found would be "removed" from the convoy. Despite this, some protesters were photographed waving Nazi flags at the rally. The Globe and Mail noted that "signs comparing vaccine mandates to the persecution of Jewish people by the Nazis remained" until the clearance. On January 28, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau expressed concern that a small group of protesters are going to be posing a threat during the weekend.
One of the lead organizers of the convoy, James Bauder, has previously stated support for QAnon, endorsed conspiracy theories about the COVID-19 pandemic and the 2020 US presidential election, and called for the arrest of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau for alleged treason. On February 3, 2022, Romana Didulo arrived in Ottawa with supporters. Didulo, a conspiracy theorist linked to QAnon who calls herself the "Queen of Canada", had called in November 2021 on her 73,000 Telegram followers to shoot healthcare workers administering COVID-19 vaccines. An episode of The Faulkner Focus, hosted by Harris Faulkner, was criticized by The Daily Beast in February 2022 for trying to normalize the protests and anti-vaccine sentiment. The episode said that the protesters were not a fringe minority, but represented the mainstream of society and had international support. The montage of protesters she showed prominently displayed imagery relating to QAnon.
The Facebook page for the convoy has shared content from, and listed as an organizer, the Wexit co-founder and Yellow Vest Canada organizer Patrick "Pat" King, who has previously hosted counter-protests to anti-racism rallies, spread COVID-19 misinformation, and spread the Great Replacement conspiracy theory. In December 2021, while talking about COVID-19 public health measures, King said "The only way this is going to be solved is with bullets." On February 8, King falsely claimed that "50% of the Ottawa police force have all turned in their resignation today".
Tamara Lich, the protest's fundraiser, is Secretary for the Maverick Party, a Western Canadian separatist group formerly known as Wexit Canada. Lich was previously the regional co-ordinator for Wexit in southeastern Alberta and a board member for Wexit Alberta. The Maverick Party denied involvement with the convoy on January 24.
Action 4 Canada, which is associated with the Canada Unity group inside the Freedom Convoy, has been called an Islamophobic and anti-LGBTQ hate and conspiracy group; it hosts webpages about the dangers of political Islam, health consequences of 5G technology, and the alleged underreporting by the mainstream media of adverse reactions to the vaccine. Action 4 Canada appears to have been founded by Tanya Gaw, who actively supported the Yellow Vests protests of 2019.
Jason LaFace, Canada Unity's Ontario organizer and official representative to the Freedom Convoy, is also a main organizer for No More Lockdowns Canada, an anti-lockdown and anti-vaccine mandate organization primarily associated with expelled Ontario MPP Randy Hillier. No More Lockdowns Canada holds anti-lockdown rallies across Ontario.
Benjamin Dichter, who is listed as an organizer on the Freedom Convoy's GoFundMe page, was a speaker at the inaugural 2019 People's Party of Canada national convention, and has claimed political Islam has infiltrated the Conservative Party of Canada and is "rotting away at our society like syphilis".
Convoy leader Dave Steenburg has posted material by Soldiers of Odin, a neo-Nazi vigilante group, on his Facebook page; Jason LaFace, an administrator of the Convoy Facebook page, has done the same thing. LaFace has also posted a photo of himself wearing a Soldiers of Odin jacket.
Following the seizure of weapons, ammunition and body armour at the blockade in Coutts, one piece of body armour was identified to have patches signifying relation to accelerationist right-wing militia Diagolon.
Counter-protests in favour of public health measures were held throughout the convoy's duration. In Ottawa, with protestors in the parliament area spilling into residential neighbourhoods, lawsuits and injunction requests were filed by residents.
Counter-protests were held in several cities on February 5. Counter-protestors forced a convoy of vehicles to split up in Vancouver. Some 200 people gathered in front of Ottawa City Hall to demand the end of disruptions caused by trucks downtown. People held pro-vaccination signs in Whitehorse while anti-mandate protestors passed them in vehicles.
A counter-protest organized by health care workers was planned in Toronto for February 12, but was called off when the provincial government instituted a state of emergency.
In counter-protests on February 12, thousands of people joined the "Community Solidarity March" through Ottawa to demand the end of the protests. On February 13, a group of Ottawa residents blocked the intersection of Riverside Drive and Bank Street to prevent a newly-arrived contingent of vehicles from joining the main protest. The original group of 20 grew to more than 1,000 people and successfully kettled the eastern artery of the "Blue Collar Convoy" for eight hours and were joined by groups in other neighbourhoods. The convoy vehicles left one at a time under a heavy police escort after the vehicle owners took down their signs and flags. Throughout, various individuals gained public note for their counter-protesting.
The protestors' Zello push-to-talk-style voice channels were the subject of coordinated disruption from counter-protestors, including users playing the homoerotic country rock song "Ram Ranch" to "troll" participants and listeners (an effort coordinated under the hashtag "#RamRanchResistance").
Law enforcement response
Ottawa Police Service response
Ottawa Police Service faced criticism for how it responded to the convoy during the first three weeks, culminating with the resignation of Chief Peter Sloly. At a January 31 press conference, Ottawa Police Service (OPS) Chief Peter Sloly described the demonstration as "unique in nature, massive in scale, polarizing in context and dangerous in literally every other aspect of the event itself". He said that starting on January 28 there was a "traffic gridlock" which turned into "traffic chaos" over the next two days as "thousands of vehicles, particularly heavy trucks" arrived in Ottawa. Security forces included police forces from the federal, provincial and municipal levels: the RCMP, Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), Gatineau Police, Sûreté du Québec, London Police Service, Hamilton Police Service, Peel Regional Police, Toronto Police Service, York Regional Police, and Durham Regional Police who worked with the OPS Incident Command System. OPS Chief Sloly advised people to avoid downtown Ottawa during the weekend protest, adding that "we are prepared to investigate, arrest if necessary, charge and prosecute anyone who acts violently or breaks the law in the demonstrations, or in association with the demonstrations". Chief Sloly said that since the scaling down of the demonstration on January 31, the crime prevention teams normally directly providing support in around the core, but who were deployed elsewhere during the height of the protests, have returned to their neighbourhoods.
By January 31, with the cost of police service per day estimated at CA$800,000 a day, the Mayor of Ottawa was considering legal action to cover costs.
Patrick McDonell, the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Commons and Director General of Parliamentary Protective Service (PPS) warned Members of Parliament about possible doxing attempts to discover the addresses of their residences in the Capital Region. The letter further warned MPs not to get involved in any demonstrations, to "go somewhere safe", and to keep all doors locked. McDonell told reporters that Canada has never been so divided—the thousands of people arriving on Parliament Hill in the trucker convoy represents a "symbol of the fatigue" that Canadians are experiencing after two years of COVID. PPS prepared for approximately 10,000 protesters; Wellington Street, which is in front of Parliament Hill was closed to most traffic; some lanes had been "designated specifically" for truckers; and others for emergency vehicles.
The OPS had called in reinforcements from the RCMP and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS)—Canada's main intelligence service—and were working to identify threats in the convoy. Intelligence reports by the Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre (ITAC), which is part of CSIS, said that some convoy supporters "advocated civil war", had "called for violence against prime minister Justin Trudeau, and said the protest should be 'used as Canada's 'January 6'". The ITAC reports, which were seen by The Guardian, warned in late January that that "extremists" were "likely involved" and the "potential for violence remained real". The February 8 ITAC report raised concerns that the "online rhetoric" was "violent", and that there were "ideological extremists" who were "physically present" at "some gatherings".
As protesters headed to Ottawa on January 28, the OPP tweeted "OPP advises motorists to avoid travel on Highway 417 and Highway 416 in the Ottawa area, beginning Friday afternoon and on Saturday." They asked that emergency vehicle access be assured throughout.
An article in The New York Times described the Ottawa Police Service as "vastly outnumbered", and "unprepared for the sophisticated tactics, discipline and logistical abilities of the protesters". The Ottawa Police Service has 1,500 officers to serve the million residents of the city of Ottawa. During the three weeks of the protest and occupation, only 150 officers were on the streets in "three of the most affected neighbourhoods over the course of a day". Chief Sloly requested an additional 1,800 early on, but by February 13, they had not arrived. Police experts said that Sloly, who has been criticized for his response to the protests, had a legitimate problem of "lack of resources...given the unprecedented situation facing Ottawa." Some officers were "swarmed" while attempting to make an arrest. On the first weekend, crowds were estimated at 8,000 to 18,000.
On weekdays the number of protesters declined somewhat. On the second weekend, with 500 heavy trucks and 7,000 demonstrators in the downtown core "red zone" as of Saturday evening, Sloly reported to an emergency meeting Ottawa Police Services board meeting, that even with all OPS officers on active duty and the hundreds of law-enforcement officials who came to help, he did not have the resources to end what he called the "turbulent protests". On the third weekend of February 11 and 12, there were about 4,000 or 5,000 protesters and partyers in the city's core, on Parliament Hill. Even after a state of emergency was declared by the mayor, officers were outnumbered and unable to enforce injunctions or regulations.
The Times said that many analysts have cautioned that some convoy's leaders with military or policing backgrounds helped demonstrators strategize and plan under the guidance of people like Tom Quiggin, "proclaimed head of protective intelligence", who had formerly served as an "intelligence officer for the Canadian military, cabinet office and federal police." and has been described as "one of the country's top counter-terrorism experts." By February 10, Chief Sloly said 250 RCMP officers were sworn in and deployed to reinforce the 1,500 OPS officers.
The response of local police forces to these blockades has erred on the side of caution, with police at each site initially trying to negotiate with the protesters.
Integrated Command Centre response
Plans for the creation of the new Integrated Command Centre were in place by February 12. The Integrated Command Centre was created to help Ottawa Police Services (OPS) coordinate with Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) and RCMP when the anticipated reinforcements would arrive. As an estimated 4,000 protesters converged on Parliament Hill on February 12, the extra reinforcements requested by Chief Sloly a week earlier had not yet arrived.
Emergency Preparedness Minister Bill Blair said on February 13, that they are in constant contact with provincial and municipal authorities. Because the situation is "critical" for Canada with the "closing of our borders, the targeting on critical infrastructure, particularly our points of entry by the people behind these protests", it poses a "significant national security threat" to Canada, and we have to "end it".
On Day 19 of the protests, with Ottawa under three states of emergency invoked by the three levels of government, Chief Sloly resigned. At the February 15 Ottawa Police Board meeting, Deputy Chief Steve Bell, who was appointed Interim Chief of Police, told the board that the OPS force had not "yet received the 1,800 extra officers requested". At the height of the protests there were about 8,000 protesters. Overnight on February 14 there were "less than 150 people in the blockade" and approximately 360 vehicles still on the streets, in contrast to the estimated 4,000 vehicles at the end of January. The OPS had made a total of "33 arrests and charged 18 people" in the 19 day period. Canadian Police Association president, Tom Stamatakis, cautioned that with Sloly's resignation, politicians "should not "scapegoat him for other failures that have allowed this occupation to drag on."
On February 18, Day 22, hundreds of OPS, York, Toronto, Gatineau, Durham Region, London, Hamilton forces, the Sureté du Québec, the OPP, and the RCMP, worked on a coordinated police action in and around Parliament Hill. By late February 18 morning, CTV News and other mainstream media reporting in the red zone, showed police steadily, very slowly sandwiching groups of dozens of the remaining protesters on all sides on separate streets. There were reports of a flank of police on horseback behind those in the front lines. Families with children were seen in these final groups of protesters with police reporting that protesters were "putting children between their operations and the protest site." The police assured that "children will be brought to a place of safety." In a CBC interview with Charles Bordeleau, former OPS chief, he said he had never seen children used before in other protests. He said that the CAS did not have to step in. Pat King was arrested near noon. King is described as the final of three major online influencers continuing the protest to be arrested. He was later charged of mischief, counselling to commit the offence of mischief, counselling to commit the offence of disobey court order (s.127), and counselling to commit the offence of obstruct police.
By early afternoon, tactical officers began slowly entering the cabins of large rigs that had been parked in front of Parliament since the end of January. Two large campers placed by protesters to prevent large trucks blocking Sussex from moving were finally cleared early in the afternoon with the arrest of a protester in the motor home by five officers wearing full security gear. Police allowed mainstream media close access to the frontlines of the tactical method. In the afternoon, as some of the remaining protesters accepted the inevitable, they began to clear 30 cm of snow from their trucks and trailers in preparation for their departure.
Frustrated protesters interviewed by CBC and CTV who were earlier calling "Hold the line", asked for their "voice to be heard". The last few protesters said without evidence, that the protest was legal, citing, but misunderstanding Canadian law. CBC News on the front lines reported protesters in the red zone, who could leave but choose to stay and be arrested. There were 70 arrests and 21 vehicles were removed by mid-afternoon. CBC's senior defence writer, Murray Brewster, described the police operation as professional, methodical, and tactical. Police did not prevent truckers or individual protesters from driving or walking away for most of the day. They may face charges later.
Police used a minimal amount of force even late in the afternoon as members of different forces began "squeezing" the group of protesters "even tighter" on Wellington Street in front of Parliament. They were not wearing shields or using pepper spray or tear gas, as they wanted protesters to leave, as opposed to arresting them, according to Bordeleau. As waiting long lines tow trucks, brought in by the police, replaced the heavy rigs that had been grid-locking Ottawa downtown, some of tow truck company names were hidden. CBC reported that tow truck companies who had previously refused to tow protesters' vehicles, have been forced through the Emergencies Act to comply with orders. Bordeleau also said that the Emergencies Act had allowed police to set up 100 checkpoints around the city of Ottawa to prevent protester back-filling and to prevent pop-up protests. In response to those who contrasted the February 18 coordinated successful response to the OPS inaction in previous weeks, Carol Anne Meehan, an Ottawa City Councillor, said that the OPS had been severely under-resourced until the Emergencies Act was invoked.
On February 19, police began with a "hard, fast push" towards to the encampment at Parliament Hill. Due to the resistance of protesters, police wore helmets and batons for protection. At one point, a smoke device was released by protesters. By early afternoon, more than 140 people had been arrested and dozens of vehicles had been seized. During the question period of the OPS press conference, Chief Bell confirmed that security forces have been gathering intelligence using videos, and that they will be actively pursuing people who have been filmed. The police will actively follow up with identifications, collect evidence, seek criminal charges with sanctions can include the financial level and licensing level.
As of February 10, there was general agreement by government and police that vigorous efforts to clear the blockades were dangerous, possibly leading to expanded or violent reactions. A variety of options were legally possible and some, such as issuing tickets, were employed. Tow-truck drivers in several locations declined to tow trucks.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, on February 3, declared his reluctance to employ the military to clear the protesters, saying he had received no formal request for military assistance and added, "One has to be very, very cautious before deploying military in situations engaging Canadians," saying it's not something to "enter into lightly".
On February 11, the court injunction to clear protesters from the Ambassador Bridge, secured by the City of Windsor, went into effect at 7 pm. Prime Minister Trudeau and United States President Joe Biden met virtually to discuss the dissolution of cross-border blockades. Ontario Premier Doug Ford declared a state of emergency in the province. Heavy fines of up to $100,000 and up to a year of imprisonment were introduced for offences such as blocking or impeding the movement of goods, people, and services along critical roads and bridges in the province, including "international border crossings, 400-series highways, airports, ports, bridges and railways". Penalties include revoking personal and commercial drivers' licences.
On February 17, police massed at a staging area in Ottawa. A 12 foot-high fence was constructed around the Parliament building and over 100 checkpoints limited access to the protest area. OC Transpo transit stations in the downtown were also closed.
Convoy organizers Chris Barber and Tamara Lich were arrested in separate instances, and Lich stated that her personal bank account had been frozen. Several other people were arrested after ignoring multiple orders to leave the area. Pat King, another convoy organizer, was arrested by police on February 18.
That same day, police made at least 70 arrests and towed 21 vehicles by mid-afternoon. The police operation consisted of an initial wave of horse-mounted police officers, and other officers on foot wearing high-visibility jackets, followed by tactical teams in green-camouflage gear, and then officers in light armoured vehicles and on horseback bringing up the rear. In at least one case, officers broke the a truck's window to reach its occupant, who refused to exit their vehicle. Police also removed children from the site, citing a fear for their safety during the operation.
A protester was arrested and charged for allegedly throwing a bicycle and hitting the legs of a horse from the Toronto Police Service Mounted Unit at about 5:30. In the ensuing skirmish, some pepper spray was used. Ottawa Police reported that several officers and horses had been assaulted by demonstrators while attempting to clear the red zone, and over 100 people had been arrested by the evening of February 18. In the afternoon of February 19, police were present in force and were mopping up the area. By late afternoon, the last large group of protesters was corralled near the corner of Bank and Sparks Streets, with police holding a line for several hours as the crowd swelled to approximately 1,000 by dusk and a street party (with an impromptu DJ) ensued. After nightfall, the line of police unexpectedly advanced on the celebratory crowd, pushing it a block south to Queen Street, spraying pepper gas as they did so. Fencing was erected afterwards, and the crowd gradually dispersed over the course of the night. In total, 170 people had been arrested and a few dozen trucks towed. Protest leaders advised leaving the area and were asking for permission to do so. Pepper gas had been used; one police officer suffered a minor injury.
On February 11, Ontario Premier Doug Ford declared a state of emergency in the province. On the same day, Ontario Superior Court granted an injunction to remove protesters from the Ambassador Bridge. The injunction was sought by multiple industry groups affected by the blockade including the Automotive Parts Manufacturers' Association.
On February 23 at 5:00 p.m., Ontario ended the state of emergency.
On February 14, Trudeau invoked the Emergencies Act. The Act gave police extraordinary powers to "end border blockades and the occupation of downtown Ottawa by so-called “Freedom Convoy” protesters." Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland said that under the Act, protesters' "trucks can be seized, their corporate accounts frozen and vehicle insurance suspended". While Trudeau insisted that the military would not be deployed, Emergency Preparedness Minister Bill Blair did not rule out deployment, and called the lack of enforcement by Ottawa Police "inexplicable". The Emergencies Act replaced the former War Measures Act, which was famously invoked by Trudeau's father, former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, to deploy the Canadian Forces against a violent separatist group during the 1970 October Crisis. This was the first time the act had been invoked since its 1988 inception.
The Canadian Civil Liberties Association criticized the invocation of the Act in a press release, saying, "The federal government has not met the threshold necessary to invoke the Emergencies Act. This law creates a high and clear standard for good reason: the Act allows government to bypass ordinary democratic processes. This standard has not been met." In the same press release, the CCLA stated that the normalization of emergency legislation, "threatens our democracy and our civil liberties." On February 17, the CCLA announced it was suing the federal government over the Act's invocation, stating that the Emergencies Act must be reserved for national emergencies, which they argued was a "legal standard that has not been met."
After the invocation of the Act, Chrystia Freeland, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance announced that the purview of the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada was expanded to include the monitoring of funds sent through crowdfunding platforms such as GoFundMe, where protestors had raised millions that were ultimately refunded, as well as payment providers formerly outside its scope. Freeland specifically cited cryptocurrency transactions, which the protestors turned to after GoFundMe, as a type of digital transaction that the new measures were meant to cover. Canadian banks were also temporarily given the authority to freeze accounts suspected of being used to support the protests without the need to obtain court orders, were granted legal immunity if they chose to do so, and were allowed to more freely share information with law enforcement and government agencies.
On February 21, the House of Commons voted to confirm the Emergencies Act, with 185 for and 151 opposing the motion. On February 23, Trudeau told a press conference that he would lift the Emergencies Act at 5:00 p.m. He warned that any violations of law during the emergency would be investigated.
Other border crossing obstructions
Protesters returned on February 12, where a police barricade was set up. A convoy led by a privately owned vehicle painted in military style broke through the police barricades, and the border crossing was subsequently closed.
On February 15, the border crossing reopened.
The blockage at Emerson, Manitoba border crossing was cleared February 15, 2022.
Other Canadian protests
On February 4, 2022, some vehicles and tractors arrived outside the Royal Ontario Museum on Avenue Road north of Queen's Park in Toronto. Also on February 4, Toronto Police started closing roads in the downtown in anticipation of a large protest and told residents to expect a larger police presence during the weekend.
On February 5, truckers, tractor drivers, and protesters arrived in Queen's Park to protest COVID-19 vaccine mandates. In response, a group of healthcare workers staged a counter-protest. Protest activity later moved north to Bloor Street and later to the intersection of Bloor Street West and Avenue Road. Hundreds of protesters and several trucks blocked the intersection for hours. Long stretches of major arterial roads, including University Avenue, College Street, and Yonge Street, were shut down. Fearing possible threats against healthcare workers, University Health Network and Sinai Health System, which operate major hospitals in the protest area, warned their employees to avoid wearing any clothing or badges that would identify them as health-care workers outside hospital premises.
During the protest, a 22-year-old man was arrested and charged with assault with a weapon, use of a smoke bomb (administering a noxious substance), and public mischief. A second man was arrested for assault with a weapon after throwing feces at another person.
On February 5, at a related protest in downtown Winnipeg, four people were injured in a ramming incident. One was hospitalized and later released. As of February 7, protests were on their fourth day. Police have yet to write tickets or lay charges against protesters, despite numerous noise complaints, fireworks without permit, and incidents of "homophobia, racism, and gender-based harassment."
A protest targeting the New Brunswick Legislature in Fredericton began on Friday, February 11. Fredericton Police established checkpoints leading into the city's downtown, and refused entry to any large truck without a valid manifest. A group of about 300 protesters gathered at the New Brunswick Legislative Building, growing to a peak of 700 by Saturday. By Sunday afternoon, police reported that about 70 protesters remained in the city, and that there had been three arrests related to the protest, and numerous tickets issued for traffic and city bylaw infractions.
On January 30, the Government of Nova Scotia made it illegal for people to gather on Highway 104 along the border with New Brunswick in anticipation of protesters blockading the highway. On February 6, hundreds of vehicles drove through Halifax as part of the "Freedom Convoy". On February 12, hundreds of people from around Nova Scotia travelled to Halifax to protest. The Halifax Regional Police blocked off access to some roads in downtown Halifax in response to the protest.
Protestors gathered in Edmonton for three consecutive Saturdays, and an Alberta Court of Queen's Bench Justice granted an interim injunction on February 11, 2022, prohibiting protest participants from causing incessant sound with horns and megaphones within city limits. Edmonton Police Service (EPS) was criticized by City Councilor Michael Janz for taking stronger enforcement measures against a counter protest than it did with the main protest. According to EPS, the responses varied as they tried to protect public and officer safety, and keep traffic moving.
Truckers and protesters have gathered in Oakville, Mississauga, Vaughan, other parts of the Greater Toronto Area, Orangeville, Quebec City, Calgary, Vancouver, Vancouver Island, Kelowna, Regina, and Victoria. A convoy in Charlottetown attracted hundreds of protesters on February 12, mostly driving personal vehicles and farm equipment.
The Freedom Convoy also inspired several Facebook and Telegram groups organizing similar protests in 34 countries including Argentina, Austria, Cyprus, New Zealand, Australia and the United States. As is the case in Canada, demonstrations were partly supported by local far-right groups; in Finland by members of neo-fascist Blue-and-Black Movement, Soldiers of Odin and Power Belongs to the People, and in Germany by the Reichsbürger movement and Alternative for Germany.
In February 2022, a solidarity protest was organized in the United Kingdom with a convoy driving from Scotland to London with stops in cities throughout the British isles. Other convoys were reported in Wales and parts of England.
Officials in Paris and Brussels banned protests relating to the Freedom Convoy, following information from organizers of a similar event opposed to France's Health Pass, le Convoi de la Liberté, that five convoys from across France were due to reach Paris between February 11 and 14. French Police used tear gas to disperse protesters, in addition to intercepting hundreds of vehicles and issuing hundreds of fines to those participating in the convoy.
On February 23, a group of American truckers began a solidarity protest convoy from California to Washington, D.C. called the "People's Convoy". In response, The Pentagon approved the deployment of 700 unarmed National Guard troops to D.C. In early March, a demonstration was held by convoy protesters in D.C. near the Washington Monument, but only a small number of people attended. One convoy called the "US Freedom Convoy" was scheduled to arrive in D.C. on March 1, but disbanded when only five trucks arrived in Las Vegas from Los Angeles. Also in early March, more than 1,000 large trucks, recreational vehicles and cars gathered in the outskirts of D.C. as part of the "People's Convoy" protest. A website for the protest said that they will not enter "D.C. proper". However, one participant who described himself as the lead trucker said that he would drive his truck into the city. After three weeks of protesting, on March 27, People's Convoy co-organizer Mike Landis announced that the convoy would leave D.C. and drive back to California.
Rolling Thunder Ottawa
A motorcycle convoy of "hundreds" is scheduled to enter Ottawa on April 29. The group's route intends to stop at the National War Memorial and Parliament Hill. Looking to avoid of a repeat of the previous convoy, Ottawa Police announced that vehicles would not be allowed near the Hill. Ottawa Police are to be joined by members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ontario Provincial Police, and various municipal police services. Up to 831 RCMP are available as special constables.
The Royal Canadian Legion distanced itself from the protest, stating in part "The Legion defends these sacred sites of Remembrance, and asserts that they should never be used as a backdrop for any other agenda beyond the act of Remembrance. Our hope and appeal to all who may gather before the National War Memorial this weekend is that they do so with a focus purely on Remembrance."
A large crowd gathered on Rideau Street in the evening, in front of Rideau Centre. After an escalation of crowd aggression, police with helmets and shields were deployed. An attempted to occupy a parking lot was overturned. In total, seven people were arrested on the first evening. A professor who studies the dynamics of protests counted less than a thousand people at the rally, including police and journalists. A counter protest, described as an "unwelcoming party", was held by locals at Strathcona Park.
Saturday's planned events include a rally at Parliament Hill featuring COVID-19 conspiracy theorist Christopher Saccoccia, widely referred to as Chris Sky. Rolling Thunder's organizer, Neil Sheard, has attempted to distance himself from Saccoccia. Another group, "Ottawa Unity Chain," intends to form a human chain. It claims to have collaborated with Sheard's group.
Results and aftermath
Parliamentary committee investigations
The House of Commons committee structure leant itself to ongoing investigations, in the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance (FINA) and the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security (SECU) and the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs (PROC).
The FINA committee had its first session on the Invocation of the Emergency Act and Related Measures on 22 February 2022, and as of 28 April had elicited testimony from 22 witnesses over seven hearings.
As early as 10 February, before the protest ended, the SECU committee devoted two sessions to the Crowdfunding Platforms and Extremism Financing investigation, and interviewed 17 witnesses in the Occupation of Ottawa and the Federal Government's Response to Convoy Blockades segment.
On 25 February in sworn witness testimony to the SECU committee Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino in answer to the Shadow Minister for Public Safety Raquel Dancho stated that "I would just point out that from the very outset of the illegal blockade, that a number of organizers and leaders of the so-called Freedom Convoy made a number of profoundly concerning and extremist statements calling for the overthrow of the government through violence."
On 24 March the Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police Thomas Carrique stated in sworn testimony before the committee that "the province's intelligence bureau identified a threat associated with the lengthy protest in the national capital on February 7, one week before the federal government invoked the Emergencies Act...that the Freedom Convoy blockades were a provincial and national emergency" and that the "situation and the associated events simultaneously taking place across Canada required unprecedented national collaboration to prevent injury, preserve life and protect critical infrastructure."
On 19 May 2022 Shadow Minister for Emergency Preparedness Dane Lloyd asked Minister for Public Safety Marco Mendicino about the need for the invocation of the Emergencies Act and elicited the comment that the latter "stands by previous statements that the federal government invoked the Emergencies Act on the recommendation of law enforcement officials." The "previous statements" were in witness testimony that Mendicino made at a SECU committee hearing in April, to wit that the government "invoked the act because it was the advice of non-partisan professional law enforcement that the existing authorities were ineffective at the time to restore public safety."
On 17 May 2022 the PROC committee heard sworn testimony from interim Ottawa police chief Steve Bell that at no time did he request the invocation of the Emergencies Act from the Trudeau government.
Early on in the life of the DECD committee its NDP co-chair, Matthew Green, said that committee members "have a 'responsibility' to work together" in light of the disagreement of the Official Opposition over the constitution of the committee. It consisted of seven MPs and four senators. On 6 March 2022 co-chair Green was "interested in looking at the actions of police (or the lack of them), the role played by 'dark money' raised through" the GoFundMe and GiveSendGo crowdfunding platforms. The Senate co-chair (one of three), Gwen Boniface, was the OPP commissioner from 1998 until 2006.
Economic loss and costs
On February 15, there were reports that the blockage of the Ambassador Bridge could result in and costs to the automobile industry representing approximately US$1.2 billion in the economies of both the United States and Canada.
The Director of the University of Waterloo's Cross Border Institute stated to CBC News that the economic loss from the Ambassador Bridge blockade was between $3 billion and $6 billion. Every day, vehicles and auto parts valued at approximately US$141.1 million flow across the Bridge. Major auto manufacturers were forced to pause production; "automakers and their suppliers" were having to "scramble to get parts to plants on time" for the current week's run. A previous estimate by BBC on February 12 said that the estimated total cost to the automobile industry was about US$600 million (c. CA$763 million). Experts say that the economic effects will be "felt by the auto industry and others for weeks". The demand for vehicles is strong even with prices at record highs, but dealers' lots remain empty.
Twenty five per cent of the value of "all U.S.-Canada goods trade" pass over the Ambassador Bridge daily—approximaltely $360 million in both directions a day.
During the first week alone, businesses in the downtown Ottawa, including the city's busiest and largest shopping mall, the Rideau Centre, lost nearly CA$20 million in the first week alone, according to the Retail Council of Canada.
Canadian economist, Armine Yalnizyan estimated losses such as workers' wages—CA$11 million a day for a total of $264 million—as well as other costs that Canadian taxpayers would have to pay for damages caused by the "Ottawa occupation". The estimated loss of sales at the Rideau Centre—$3 million a day according to the Retail Council of Canada—amounts to a total of $72 million for one shopping mall alone. Over 50 per cent of the 235 businesses in the area that was blockaded lost revenue. Taxpayers will pay for the $300 a week for those workers who are eligible for the Canada Worker Lockdown Benefit. They will also pay for the $20 million the federal government will provide to local businesses who lost revenues. The $2.5 million for Ottawa LRT free public transit will be paid by taxpayers as will the millions of dollars for extra police reinforcements. Yalnizyan also noted the "incalculable damage" to Canada's international reputation as a trade partner which could have a negative impact on supply chains and "political discourse." She did not include the cost to those who lived in the neighbourhoods most impacted, who could not leave their homes and in some cases were "unable to sleep or access clean air or, at times, even food." As well, other communities and neighbourhoods had to live with a reduced police force and therefore reduced safety, as officers were seconded to the Ottawa's downtown core.
In Ottawa, Ottawa Police Service (OPS) initially claimed that every day protests were ongoing was costing CA$800,000. Consistent with earlier estimates, Ottawa Police Services Board announced on February 15 that the cost was around $785,000 per day, resulting in a estimated $14.1 million over the course of 18 days. According to Mayor Watson, the Chief of Police's request for 1,800 additional officers could increase the cost to $2.5 million daily. In comparison, by February 8, the cost of the truck convoy had already eclipsed the $620,000 in average policing costs for Ottawa's annual Canada Day celebrations. In addition to policing costs, by February 7, the convoy cost an additional $1 million in other city services.
The closure began January 29, with the mall reopening on February 22. An imitation firearm in the mall resulted in a police-led evacuation, multiple hour closure, and closure of the O-Train at nearby stations.
Based on a class-action lawsuit against organizers, lawyer Paul Champ estimated that lost wages and revenue in the downtown core totalled at least $CA306 million. Efforts to fundraise for affected charities includes one called "Make Ottawa Boring Again."
According to a February 3 CTV News report, the economic loss of the Sweetgrass–Coutts Border Crossing border crossing closure was estimated at CA$220 million. Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters estimated on February 3, that $44 million in daily cross-border trade was affected by the blockade at the border crossing that averages CA$15.9 billion annually in two-way trade.
Alberta RCMP tried to negotiate with the protesters blocking access to the Coutts border crossing. Police attempted to clear the blockade on February 2, 2022, by blocking access to the protest site and ordering participants to leave or face arrest. The operation was halted due to safety concerns, after multiple vehicles drove around the police barricades to reach the border blockade, travelled on the wrong side of the highway, and two vehicles collided. A local resident alleged that her SUV was hit by one of these vehicles while she and her family were attempting to get groceries. Someone from the other vehicle punched the resident's husband, who received stitches as a result. The RCMP began a new operation to clear the blockade, after discovering and seizing a substantial cache of guns and armour on February 14. There were 13 arrests on February 14 in relation to this seizure. The border crossing fully re-opened on February 15, after protest participants agreed to leave peacefully.
The economic loss caused by the blockade at the Ambassador Bridge connecting Windsor and Detroit, due to initial delays, was estimated at US$50 million per day when border crossing was still open but at a standstill, according to a February 9 Guardian article.
BBC reported on February 12 that due to rerouting to other border crossings, that the estimated total cost to the automobile industry was calculated at approximately US$600 million (c. CA$763 million). According to the United States State Department Ambassador Bridge website, there is US$323 million worth of goods crossing it daily; with 10,000 commercial vehicles crossing each week day; and US$1.7 billion in total "value in trade between Canada and the US every day."
Criticism of Ottawa Police
In response to criticism that police had been too soft on "disruptive protesters", on February 1, Chief Sloly said that it was a "measure of success" that there were "no riots, no injuries, no deaths". By February 4, Ottawa Police's response to the protests and later encampments of lingering protesters drew criticism from local residents. Complaints focused around lack of enforcement on noise due to constant horn-honking, disruption of livelihoods and continued gridlock. Police later addressed some concerns by issuing 30 tickets on February 3.
Criticism has also focused on "the sharp contrast between the occupiers' reception and the ways police forces all over Canada treat Black and Indigenous people, who are violently policed for existing in public space, let alone protesting."
By February 13, on Day 17, federal Minister Blair "urged the police to do their jobs, enforce the law and restore order". Police enforcement of "layers of laws, injunctions, and emergency orders already in effect" was minimal, which further "emboldened" protesters on Ottawa's downtown core.
On day 19 of the protests, February 15, Sloly resigned as Chief of the Ottawa Police Service. Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino announced that the RCMP and OPP would assume control of the situation in Ottawa.
On February 16, Ottawa city councillor Diane Deans was removed by council as chair of the Police board, in a 15–9 vote. Councillors described the board as ineffective in oversight, and were critical of the hiring of an interim chief without consultation. Hiring is something the Ontario Police Services Act allows them to do, and the choice had received support of the Ontario Solicitor General. A vote to remove councillor Carol Anne Meehan from the board failed. Councillor Rawlson King resigned from the board during the meeting. A citizen vice chair resigned earlier in the day.
Six investigators and two forensic investigators from the Special Investigations Unit are investigating two incidents involving the police. The first is an incident on Friday, at about 5:14 p.m. on Rideau Street and Mackenzie Avenue involving a Toronto Police Service officer in the mounted police unit and a 49-year-old woman, who "has a reported serious injury". There is a now-debunked but widely-spread online rumour that a woman had been trampled by a horse and killed. The family of the woman said that "she is alive and is recovering from a broken clavicle." This was also confirmed by paramedics.[e] On "Saturday, at about 7:18 p.m. Vancouver Police Department officers discharged Anti-Riot Weapon Enfields (less-lethal firearms) at individuals in the area of Sparks Street and Bank Street".
From an access-to-information request, emails between the National Capital Commission and Ottawa Police Services revealed that law enforcement overall was hampered by poor communication, disagreement on approaches and tactics, and confusion over jurisdiction.
Active investigations are underway for a number of widely publicized incidents including those related to the Unknown Soldier's memorial and the Terry Fox statue as well as for more general incidents, including bribery, threats, assault, dangerous driving, and setting a fire in a building. An OPS hotline has been set up where victims can report crimes, including hate crimes.
Chief Sloly warned offenders that if they had come from elsewhere and committed a crime, including hate crime in Ottawa, there have been "intelligence officers, investigative officers, and multi-jurisdictional support" from across Canada at work in the background. He said, that "no matter where you live, no matter where your vehicles are registered ... You will be investigated ... We will look for you. We will charge you, if necessary, will arrest you, and we will pursue prosecutions against you."
On February 7, some two dozen arrests were made, and nearly 80 criminal investigations had begun.
On March 21, a 21-year-old Ottawa man unrelated to the protest was charged in connection with the fire. On April 6, a 41-year-old Ottawa man, also unrelated to the protest, was similarly charged.
On February 4, 2022, Ottawa human rights lawyer Paul Champ filed a $9.8 million class action lawsuit against Chris Barber, Benjamin Ditcher, Tamara Lich, Patrick King and others as organizers of the Freedom Convoy on behalf of downtown Ottawa residents over continuous air horn and train horn noise. The lawsuit is seeking $4.8 million for "private nuisance" and $5 million in punitive damages. In response to the suit, convoy organizers agreed to cease horn noise until 1:00 p.m. on February 6. Many protesters ignored the agreement.
The lawsuit went to court on the afternoon of February 5 and a hearing was adjourned to February 7. On February 6, Champ posted an ultimatum to protesters in Ottawa that they would be released from the lawsuit if they left Ottawa by 10:00 a.m. EST on February 7.
By February 17, the claim had expanded to include a class of businesses and was then at $CDN306 million. Union 613 and Happy Goat Coffee were added as plaintiffs.
On February 18, as part of a class-action civil suit against the Freedom Convoy organizers, an Ontario Superior Court judge has frozen as much as CA$20 million under a Mareva order that targets cryptocurrency, raised for the convoy protests in Ottawa. Paul Champ is the lawyer for the plaintiffs, residents of downtown Ottawa. The Mareva injunction, is separate from the federal government’s efforts to work with banks to have accounts frozen. The injunction freezes convoy donations which could eventually be redistributed to residents who are including in the suit.
Statements and reactions
"Freedom of expression, assembly and association are cornerstones of democracy, but Nazi symbolism, racist imagery and desecration of war memorials are not."
— Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau, the Prime Minister of Canada, dismissed the supply chain disruption concerns as unfounded on the basis that most Canadian truckers have been vaccinated. On January 31, Trudeau called the protests an "insult to truth", saying that "we are not intimidated by those who hurl abuse at small business workers and steal food from the homeless" and "We won't give in to those who fly racist flags. We won't cave to those who engage in vandalism, or dishonour the memory of our veterans."
Omar Alghabra, the Minister of Transport, said on January 31, that since January 15 when the truck drivers' vaccine mandate came into effect, the traffic volumes of transport trucks crossing the Canada-US border had not decreased. Compared to the fall of 2021, and based on Statistics Canada's most recent figures, even with a "massive snowstorm, even though it was a U.S. holiday, we had almost 100,000 truckers cross the border". On CTV's January 30 Question Period he said that some voices in the crowd of protestors are "really disturbing and unacceptable" and "must be condemned"; this included those carrying signs with swastikas and Confederate flags, and those who called for the overthrow of the government. On January 24, he described them as a "small number of far-right, vocal opposition that is polluting" the debate surrounding vaccine mandates.
Erin O'Toole, Leader of the Official Opposition and the Conservative Party as the convoys started, initially declined to support the protest, saying instead that the best way to maintain supply chains is for truckers to get vaccinated. O'Toole then later said he would meet with the protesters, but would not participate in nor attend their demonstration in Ottawa. O'Toole tweeted "I support their right to be heard, and I call on Justin Trudeau to meet with these hard-working Canadians to hear their concerns". O'Toole, a veteran of the Canadian Armed Forces, later condemned the protesters for desecrating the war memorials on Parliament Hill. O'Toole was ousted on a leadership review on February 2, some party members citing his policy reversals on issues such as his support for the protest.
Conservative MPs Candice Bergen, Andrew Scheer, Garnett Genuis, Pierre Poilievre, Martin Shields, Warren Steinley, Jeremy Patzer, and Leslyn Lewis all expressed their support for the convoy and truckers' movement. Damien Kurek and Michael Cooper attended the rally, serving food. Cooper was further interviewed on television. A person in behind Cooper had an upside-down Canadian flag with a swastika; Cooper says that he was unaware. Bergen, who became interim Conservative leader after Erin O'Toole's ouster, has privately advocated against dispersing protesters, and insisted in the House that Trudeau extend an "olive branch". Before O'Toole was removed from the Conservative leadership, Bergen had implored him to support the protestors, saying that "there were good people on both sides", an echo of the phrase made by Donald Trump in regards to the Unite the Right rally in 2017.
On February 10, as a third border blockade began in Manitoba, the Conservatives reversed their position supporting the border blockades. Bergen called for the blockades to disperse, "for the sake of the economy", but vowed to continue pushing the governing Liberals to release a clear plan for ending COVID-19 restrictions.
During debate on the Emergencies Act, Conservative Members of Parliament dismissed the convoy; deputy whip Lianne Rood called it joyful, and compared it to Canada Day. Conservative Member Michael Cooper called a Liberal Member "a despicable human being".
Other Canadian politicians
People's Party of Canada leader Maxime Bernier, Ontario Party Leader Derek Sloan, and independent Ontario MPP Randy Hillier expressed support for the convoy protests. The People's Party organized a rally in Waterloo on January 23 supporting the convoy, at which Bernier and Hillier both spoke. Bernier also attended the January 29 event at Parliament Hill, criticizing Erin O'Toole for not attending. Hillier would later speak at the convoy, stating "this is the hill we die on." Hillier also spoke on Russia Today about the convoy, and later tweeted "Russia news provides a platform for objective journalism where Canadian msm [sic] creates fabrications".
Other Canadian politicians—including Jagmeet Singh, leader of the New Democratic Party, and Ottawa City Councillor Catherine McKenney—described the protests as extremist. Mayor of Port Coquitlam Brad West condemned the defacing of Fox's statue during the protest. Premier of Ontario Doug Ford called the protest in Ottawa "an illegal occupation" and called for an end to the protests.
On January 29, Premier of Saskatchewan Scott Moe issued a letter in support of the protest. Although repeatedly encouraging vaccination, Moe argued that it would only reduce the chance of severe outcomes, and did not prevent infection or transmission of COVID-19—a statement that was subsequently disputed—and for that reason he did not support the cross-border vaccine mandate, and would lift proof of vaccination requirements in Saskatchewan "in the not too-distant future".
Members of Parliament reported an increase in inappropriate and threatening calls to their offices, in correlation with the protests.
American politicians and media figures
Multiple Republican politicians and media figures endorsed the Freedom Convoy including US Senators Marsha Blackburn, Ted Cruz, Steve Daines, and Rand Paul, US Representatives Jim Banks, Dan Bishop, Lauren Boebert, Ken Buck, Madison Cawthorn, Paul Gosar, Marjorie Taylor Greene, Jim Jordan, Kevin McCarthy, Chip Roy, Steve Scalise, Governor Ron DeSantis, Kay Ivey, former US President Donald Trump, former Governor Mike Huckabee, former White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows, TV personalities Donald Trump Jr., Lara Trump, and singer Ted Nugent. Fox News' personalities Tucker Carlson, Sean Hannity and Laura Ingraham expressed support for the protestors in broadcasts.
On February 10, US Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg and Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas contacted their Canadian counterparts, recommended the use of Canadian federal powers, and offered the support of the Departments of Transportation and Homeland Security. Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer stated of the convoy, "It's hitting pay checks and production lines. That is unacceptable."
On February 11, President Joe Biden met virtually with Prime Minister Trudeau to discuss the resolution of cross-border blockades.
Facebook stated that they had removed fake users that were set up in overseas content farms, in Romania, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, which were promoting the convoy protests in Canada. After this announcement, New York Democratic Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney questioned Facebook as to the number of the accounts, when they were identified and how many impressions they had on US and Canadian users, comparing it to Russian interference in the 2016 US elections. In a letter to Zuckerberg, Maloney cited that "One Bangladeshi firm was responsible for attracting more than 170,000 members to some of the largest 'Freedom Convoy' organizing groups on Facebook."
After Ottawa was cleared, conservative commentator Candace Owens called for American troops to be sent to Canada, "to deal with the tyrannical reign of Justin Trudeau Castro." Alt-right personality Mike Cernovich described Trudeau as a fascist.
Trucking industry and labour groups
In their February 7 statement, Teamsters Canada, representing more than 55,000 professional drivers, including approximately 15,000 long-haul truck drivers, of whom 90 percent are vaccinated, said that the protest "serves to delegitimize the real concerns of most truck drivers today". The statement said that the convoy and "the despicable display of hate led by the political right and shamefully encouraged by elected conservative politicians does not reflect the values of Teamsters Canada."
On January 25, the Canadian Trucking Alliance (CTA), a truckers' trade association, and the federal government issued a formal statement reinforcing the use of vaccinations, along with other public health measures, to protect Canadian health care and to reduce COVID-19 risk. In the statement the CTA and the government committed to working together to respond to supply chain constraints. A January 29 CTA statement cautioned the public that a "great number of protestors" have no connection to the trucking industry and "have a separate agenda beyond a disagreement over cross border vaccine requirements". CTA's January 22 statement had announced that they do "not support support and strongly disapprove of any protests on public roadways, highways, and bridges" and the disruption of the "motoring public on highways and commerce at the border". CTA members can express their disagreement with government policies by holding an "organized, lawful event on Parliament Hill". Stephen Laskowski, CTA president said the trucking industry "must adapt and comply with this mandate".
The Private Motor Truck Council of Canada noted concern about the convoy's "racist remarks", citing the comparisons to Nazis and communism. The Atlantic Provinces Trucking Association and the British Columbia Trucking Association both criticized the protest.
Various trucking companies have tried to distance themselves from the convoys, claiming that the vehicles are owner-operated, despite featuring their logos.
Mass media outlets
According to The New York Times, "In an increasingly polarized political environment, the Canadian truckers became an instant cause célèbre." In late January, CBC host Nil Köksal pondered that "there is concern that Russian actors could be continuing to fuel things as this protest grows. But perhaps even instigating it from, from the outset".
According to Local Journalism Initiative, ethnic media outlets exhibited a variety of reporting and reactions to the protests. OMNI Punjabi highlighted the Punjabi truckers who were stuck on the US side of the border for days. Additionally, reporting noted that "most Punjabi truckers are vaccinated, as vaccine coverage in the Punjabi community is high. Their priorities are around road safety, snow clearance, road maintenance, as well as working conditions and wage theft."
General Wayne Eyre, Canada's Chief of the Defence Staff, said he was "sickened to see protesters dance on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and desecrate the National War Memorial", after video of such events surfaced online January 29.
In late January 2022, Elon Musk tweeted "Canadian truckers rule" and followed it up with "If you scare people enough, they will demand removal of freedom. This is the path to tyranny." Musk also tweeted "If Canadian government is suppressing peaceful protests, that's where fascism lies." On February 17, Musk tweeted a meme comparing Justin Trudeau to Adolf Hitler, using a meme sympathetic to Hitler. The tweet was later deleted. Musk had previously tweeted a meme on January 30 making fun of people who invoke Hitler during political discussions, saying "Everyone I Don't Like is Hitler…A child's guide to online political discussion." The American Jewish Committee condemned Musk's tweet and demanded an apology from him. The Auschwitz Memorial also condemned Musk's tweet.
Barry Prentice, transportation economy professor at University of Manitoba, stated that the truckers should be treated differently than flight crews or passenger-train employees, and that the positive aspects of vaccine mandates should be evaluated against the disruptions they would cause to the freight industry. English comedian Russell Brand released a video decrying the media for ignoring reporting on the protest. Brand also said in the video that "Truckers, who were previously regarded as heroes when they were delivering vital goods and working during the lockdown, are now villains as they protest vaccine mandates". Krista Haynes, daughter of Ontario Premier Doug Ford and active anti-lockdown and anti-vaccine campaigner, attended a rally in support of the truckers as they headed to Ottawa.
Former President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadenijad, praised the protests, tweeting "violent crackdown on #FreedomConvoy2022 has nothing to do with freedom of speech and human rights. How coercion could be related to liberty & freedom of choice?" signing off with "#TruckersForFreedom".
The Royal Canadian Legion called protesters dancing on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier "shocking" and "strongly condemn[ed]" their actions. On February 12, as a convoy passed through Charlottetown, a lone veteran stood guard at the cenotaph outside Province House to prevent the same disrespect of the monument.
Singer and activist Bill Fries, whose song "Convoy" (recorded under his alias C. W. McCall) was used as a rallying cry for the movement, gave his implicit approval for the use of the song in that manner, and was pleased that the movement had caused an uptick in interest in the song, in the final interview he gave before he died.
Durham Regional Police Service Constable Erin Howard, who made a video while in uniform in her squad car supporting the protesters and later posted it online in January, was suspended and faced six charges under the Police Services Act, including discreditable conduct and insubordination. Her first court hearing was held over Zoom on May 5, 2022, with the proceeding then being adjourned until June 2022. 
In a Abacus Data survey of 1,410 Canadian adults, undertaken before the protest turned into an occupation, between January 31 and February 2, 2022, 68 per cent stated that they "had very little in common" with the demonstrators and their ideology and 32 per cent of respondents stated that they "had a lot in common" with the protestors and their worldview. Furthermore, 43 per cent of respondents stated that they felt the protest was "respectful and appropriate", while 57 per cent viewed it as "offensive and inappropriate".
A study by Vox Pop Labs among a randomly pre-selected sample of 2,339 respondents, conducted between January 4 and 10, 2022, found that around 70 per cent of Canadians were willing to support a general vaccine mandate for all non-exempt adults over the age of 18, while around 30 per cent disagreed.
A routine political poll by Léger in Canada questioned respondents on the protest between February 4 and 6, 2022, and found that it was opposed by 62 per cent of respondents, with 47 per cent strongly opposing it. 32 per cent supported it, while 7 per cent were unsure. On its subsequent questionnaire, a further 65 per cent expressed the belief that the convoy represented "a small minority of selfish Canadians," 57 per cent viewed it as "not about vaccine mandates and pandemic restrictions" but rather "an opportunity for right wing supremacist groups to rally and voice their frustrations about society," and 52 per cent likened it to the 2021 United States Capitol attack. Opposition to the convoy was highest among respondents living in urban areas, those vaccinated for COVID-19, and those aged 55 and up; while support for the convoy was highest among the unvaccinated, respondents aged 18 to 54, and respondents living in Alberta.
A poll by Maru Public Opinion found that 64 per cent of Canadians polled would support the aid of the Canadian Armed Forces to tow trucks from the protests and 53 per cent of Canadians polled would support the use of force by Ottawa Police to clear out Ottawa protesters.
An Angus Reid Institute poll released on February 14 found that 72 per cent of Canadians polled thought that it was time for protesters to "go home, they have made their point." The poll also found that 65 per cent polled believed Trudeau's response has worsened the situation and 42 per cent said opposition leader Candice Bergen's response has worsened the situation.
A Nanos Research poll commissioned by CTV News and released on February 25 found that 51 per cent of Canadians polled thought the protests were ineffective, 15 per cent thought they were somewhat ineffective, 20 per cent thought they were somewhat effective, 12 per cent thought they were effective, and 2 per cent were unsure of the protests' impact.
- List of protests in the 21st century
- Occupation (protest)
- Occupy Wall Street
- Yellow Vest Protests in Canada
- 2012 Sicilian protests
- Populism in Canada
- January 29 (estimate): 5,000–18,000 people. January 30 (estimate): 3,000 people. February 5 (estimate): 1,000 vehicles and 5,000 people.
- 4 (Winnipeg), 2 (Coutts)
- 196 (Ottawa), 42 (Windsor), 13 (Coutts), 16 (Surrey), 2 (Toronto), 2 (Peterborough), 1 (Winnipeg)
- The Emergencies Act repealed the War Measures Act, which was passed in 1914. The reformed law was designed was to provide more civil right protections and less likelihood for abuse of power than the War Measures Act.
- The Special Investigations Unit is "an independent government agency that investigates the conduct of police officers that may have resulted in death, serious injury, sexual assault and/or the discharge of a firearm at a person."
- Seto, Chris (January 27, 2022). "'Freedom Convoy' highlights frustrations over COVID-19 mandates". therecord.com. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Soucy, Paul (January 28, 2022). "Trucker convoy leaves Kingston heading for weekend rally in Ottawa". Global News. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Arnprior expecting 600 Freedom Convoy vehicles this afternoon". InsideOttawaValley.com.
- @davidakin (January 28, 2022). "Police Sources On Freedom Convoy Numbers" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Ottawa mayor says ticketing, towing protesters could incite them". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 31, 2022. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- Coletta, Amanda; Hassan, Jennifer (January 31, 2022). "Police investigate 'illegal' acts at Ottawa anti-vaccine mandate trucker protests". Washington Post. Toronto, Ontario. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Toronto police, city officials preparing for potential Queen's Park convoy protest". CBC News. February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Paez, Beatrice (February 4, 2022). "Morning Update: Canada moved to stop the arrest of ex-Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko, sources say". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
- "Tungasuvvingat Inuit says truckers protest in Ottawa causing 'anxiety and increased fear'". APTN National News. Winnipeg MB: APTN. February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "Ottawa mayor says ticketing, towing protesters could incite them". CBC News. January 31, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Al-Hakim, Aya (February 5, 2022). "As it happened: Ottawa police warn against supplying 'material supports' to protesters". Global News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- Josh Pringle; Ted Raymond (February 5, 2022). "'We need an additional surge of resources:' Ottawa police chief". CTV News. Toronto ON: BellMedia. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- Reimer, Will (February 5, 2022). "Hit-and-run injures 4 at site of anti-mandate protest in downtown Winnipeg, one man arrested". Global News. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Kost, Hannah; Easton, Rob (February 1, 2022). "Kenney calls for calm at Alberta border blockade after some protesters breach police barriers". CBC News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "Update on Police Operations to Remove Unlawful Protesters". Ottawa Police Service.
- "42 arrests, 37 vehicle seizures made by police in Windsor protest". Windsor. February 14, 2022.
- "CityNews". toronto.citynews.ca.
- "Twelve more arrests as RCMP clear protest near Pacific Highway border crossing". Vancouver Sun. Vancouver BC: Postmedia. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "Two Peterborough men charged in connection with convoy protests over the weekend". Toronto. February 21, 2022.
- "Man accused in hit-and-run at Manitoba Freedom Convoy protest granted bail, barred from entering Winnipeg". Winnipeg. February 7, 2022.
- "Ottawa Police Service Deploying All Available Officers to Enforce Neighbourhood Safety". Ottawa Police Service.
- Hall, Kalea; Barghouthi, Hani (February 15, 2022). "How long Ambassador Bridge blockade will be felt after reopening". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- La Grassa, Jennifer (February 15, 2022). "Ambassador Bridge blockade stalled billions in trade — and there could be other effects: expert". CBC News. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Holthuis, Annemieke (1993). "Maxwell Cohen's Perspective on Human Rights in Canada: The Entrenchment of the Charter and the Enactment of the Emergencies Act". In Kaplan, William; McRae, Donald (eds.). Law, Policy and International Justice: Essays in Honour of Maxwell Cohen. McGill–Queen's University Press. pp. 207–242. ISBN 978-0-7735-6427-5. OCLC 243500608.
- MacLellan, Bruce (February 15, 2022). "Invoking the Emergencies Act can help build trust in government". iPolitics. Ottawa ON: iPolitics. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Here's what you need to know about the truck convoy moving into Ottawa today". CTV News Ottawa. January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Truck convoy rolls into Kingston, Ont". Ottawa. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Canada truckers threatened with arrest at Ottawa protest – latest". The Independent. January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Gilmore, Rachel. "Some trucker convoy organizers have history of white nationalism, racism". Global News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Ferguson, Dan (January 25, 2022). "Alberta-based Maverick Party denies involvement in fund raising for 'freedom convoy'". Red Deer Advocate. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel. "Freedom Convoy: What is its aim?". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "'Freedom Convoy' rolls into town, jams Parliamentary Precinct, thousands protest against COVID-19 mandates". The Hill Times. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Big rigs, passenger vehicles snarl downtown Ottawa as trucker convoy parks by Parliament". Global News. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Taylor, Casey (January 26, 2022). "Truck convoy's message muddies the closer it gets to capital". baytoday.ca. Village Media. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- Meyers, Jeffrey B. (February 9, 2022). "Candice Bergen's nod to Trump is a sign of Canada's descent, but the Charter may save us". The Conversation. Toronto ON: Academic Journalism Society. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "Introduction to The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)" (PDF). December 3, 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Westfall, Sammy (February 8, 2022). "Here's what you need to know about the 'Freedom Convoy' in Canada". Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Gilmore, Rachel (January 27, 2022). "'Fringe minority' in truck convoy with 'unacceptable views' don't represent Canadians: Trudeau". Global News. Corus Entertainment. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- The Canadian Press (February 8, 2022). "The latest on protests against COVID-19 measures in Ottawa and beyond". St. Albert Gazette. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
Ottawa protest organizer Canada Unity is disavowing a memorandum of understanding that underpinned its fight against COVID-19 measures.
- Parkhill, Maggie (February 10, 2022). "Trucker protest: Leaders and major influencers". CTV News. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Ling, Justin. "Justin Ling – Investigative Reporter: Tweet". Twitter. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Memorandum of Understanding as of February 8". January 22, 2022. Archived from the original on February 8, 2022.
- Justin Ling (February 8, 2022). "5G and QAnon: how conspiracy theorists steered Canada's anti-vaccine trucker protest". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
Bauder vowed the convoy would camp out in Ottawa until their demands are met, insisting to his followers that a "memorandum of understanding" would force the government's hand, possibly even triggering fresh elections, if enough people sign. A Canada Unity organizer went further, saying it would require the Senate to "go after the prime minister" for "corruption" and "fascism". There is no legal basis for those claims.
- "Ottawa mayor demands apology from Tory politicians for posing in photo at protest convoy". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
Exchange beginning ~20:35 in video:
CBC: I understand you want to listen to them; I wonder though if you've read the things that they've published, such as the Memorandum of Understanding that the people who are the core organizers of this have published that say they're staying until the government is removed and a committee of them, and the Governor General, and the Senate run things. I mean...
WAUGH: That's nonsense.
CBC: How do you sit down and negotiate with the organizers when this is their stated opinion?
WAUGH: Well that's nonsense. Yeah, that's nonsense David. I mean, you know that and I know that. I mean, let's just...
CBC: But they don't know that.
WAUGH: Well they do. But you know, they're frustrated like many Canadians in this country.
- Trinh, Judy (February 9, 2022). "How organizers with police and military expertise may be helping Ottawa convoy protest dig in". CBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Mike Blanchfield; Jim Bronskill (February 8, 2022). "Blair and Mendicino blast Ottawa protesters seeking to join opposition 'coalition'". The Globe and Mail. Toronto ON. The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Keyes, Stefan (February 8, 2022). "Protest leaders want to form coalition government". CTV News. Ottawa ON. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Coletta, Amanda (February 2, 2022). "'Significant element' from U.S. involved in self-described 'Freedom Convoy' in Canada, official says". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 2, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- McCarten, James (February 7, 2022). "Trump backers seize on GoFundMe controversy as truckers linger in U.S. headlines". The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Elizabeth, Thompson; Rocha, Roberto (January 28, 2022). "Large number of donations to support convoy came from aliases, unnamed donors". CBC News. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
- Cite error: The named reference
use-gofundme-cp24was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Panetta, Alexander (February 8, 2022). "Ottawa protest inspires talk of copycat convoys in U.S. and beyond". CBC News. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- "Opinion | The Ottawa Trucker Protests Are a Test of Democracy". The New York Times. February 10, 2022. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Lithwick, Dahlia (February 7, 2022). "Canadians Aren't Actually on the Brink of Civil War". Slate. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- Garossino, Sandy (2022). "Startling Trump interference points to GoFundMe convoy campaign manipulation". Canada's National Observer. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Dale, Daniel; Ballingall, Alex (June 12, 2018). "Trump says he'll punish 'the people of Canada' because of Trudeau's news conference". Toronto Star. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Lum, Zi-Ann (February 4, 2022). "Trump calls Trudeau "far left lunatic" as siege continues in Ottawa". Politico. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Maher, Stephen (February 1, 2022). "The Conservative revolt has begun". Maclean's. Toronto ON: St. Joseph Communications. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
Wells gives us a quick history lesson, reviewing the "east/west, insider/outsider shimmy" of Conservative politics in recent decades, although an infusion of Trumpism makes it hard to figure out what will happen this time.
- Nasrallah, Elie Mikhael (February 9, 2022). "Nasrallah: Trucker protest marks Ottawa's loss of innocence". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
The loss of innocence is making Canadians into mini-Americans in the era of nativism, Trumpism and right-wing uprisings. The American disease has arrived in the winter in 2022. Canada and Ottawa may never be the same.
- DiMatteo, Enzo (January 31, 2022). "#FreedomConvoy2022 and Canada's descent into Trumpism". NOW Toronto. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Kilian, Crawford (January 31, 2022). "Where the Convoy Is Trying to Drive Canada". The Tyee. Vancouver BC. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
The destination is the ditch of Trumpism, our democratic institutions undercut by paranoid illiberalism.
- Kay, Jonathan (February 7, 2022). "Canada's truck convoy is just a stunt in a country where populism is still taboo". The Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
Each faces the same single existential decision in regard to the brand of outlying conservative populism that announces itself with a horn: (a) Let the outliers into the big tent, and watch the Conservatives be excoriated in the media as Canada's answer to Trumpism, or (b) cast them out, and send them fleeing to the People's Party, which will then siphon off support on the Conservatives' right flank.
- Poling, Jim, Sr. (February 2, 2022). "Following a convoy of courage". The Minden Times. Minden ON: White Pine Media Corp. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
The truckers' convoy didn't bring dreams to Ottawa. They brought Nazi banners, Confederate flags, anger, hatred and other relics of American Trumpism. This is a country that neither needs, nor wants Trumpism. It's a country that needs respectful protests, positive actions, much better leadership and appreciation of its heroes.
- Singh, Jagmeet [@thejagmeetsingh] (February 8, 2022). "The spread of Trumpism into Canada must be stopped. Foreign actors and money cannot be allowed to sow division in Canada. US interference from the extreme right and millions of dollars via anonymous foreign sources must be shut down" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Nasrallah, Elie Mikhael (February 9, 2022). "Nasrallah: Trucker protest marks Ottawa's loss of innocence". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Carney, Mark (February 7, 2022). "It's time to end the sedition in Ottawa by enforcing the law and following the money". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "Tamara Lich". Maverick Party. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- @glen_mcgregor (January 23, 2022). "Statement from GoFundMe to CTV News about the fundraiser for #TruckersForFreedom Freedom Convoy 2022 that has raised $2.5 million" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Tunney, Catharine (January 27, 2022). "GoFundMe has released $1M of more than $6M raised for protest convoy". CBC News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Harvey, Lex (February 3, 2022). "GoFundMe pauses donations to 'Freedom convoy' as fundraiser surpasses $10 million". Toronto Star. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Thompson, Elizabeth (February 2, 2022). "GoFundMe pauses anti-vaccine mandate protest fundraiser". CBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Thompson, Elizabeth (February 3, 2022). "MPs vote to call GoFundMe to testify at Commons committee on convoy protest". CBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Judd, Amy (January 4, 2022). "GoFundMe for Canada's trucker convoy removed for violating 'terms of service'". Global News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- "'An occuption': GoFundMe pulls plug on fundraiser for convoy protesters". Toronto ON. The Canadian Press. February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Otis, Daniel (February 4, 2022). "Trucker convoy fundraiser removed from GoFundMe". CTV News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Boisvert, Nick (February 4, 2022). "GoFundMe ends payments to convoy protest, citing reports of violence and harassment". CBC News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- "Ontario court freezes access to funds raised for protest convoy on GiveSendGo platform". CBC News. Toronto ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Anglesey, Anders (February 6, 2022). "Freedom Convoy Raises $2M on GiveSendGo After GoFundMe Removes Campaign". Newsweek. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Villegas, Paulina; Thebault, Reis (February 7, 2022). "Frozen out of GoFundMe, Canadian protest convoy raises millions on Christian site". The Washington Post. Washington DC. Archived from the original on February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Taylor, Stephanie (February 10, 2022). "Ontario freezes funds from GiveSendGo trucker convoy fundraiser". Global News. Toronto ON. The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Taylor, Stephanie (February 11, 2022). "Ontario court freezes donations to GiveSendGo, halting millions collected for truckers' protests". Canada's National Observer. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Woodward, Jon (February 13, 2022). "Anonymous donations to convoy as high as $215,000 concern Canadian MPs". CTV News. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Ki Sun Hwang, Priscilla (February 28, 2022). "Court extends rare order to freeze up to $20M in crypto, cash donations to 'Freedom Convoy'". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- "Canada protests: Police push back demonstrators in Ottawa". BBC News. February 19, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Kristy Kirkup; Ian Bailey (February 23, 2022). "Ottawa is ending the use of the Emergencies Act, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says". The Globe and Mail. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- Connolly, Amanda (February 21, 2022). "Canada must work on 'healing' from pandemic, convoy unrest, says Trudeau ahead of key vote". Global News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- "Statement on the freezing of financial accounts". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Ottawa ON: Government of Canada. February 21, 2022. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- Raj, Althia (February 20, 2022). "Debate rages over government's use of Emergencies Act in convoy crackdown". Toronto Star. Toronto. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
- Jacques Gallant; Stephanie Levitz (February 23, 2022). "Don't comment on 'frozen' bank account claims until they are verified, Conservative MPs advised". Toronto Star. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- O'Sullivan, Andrea (February 22, 2022). "Bitcoin Can Fix Financial Deplatforming of Canada's Truckers—But It Won't Be Easy". reason.com. Reason Magazine. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- Faife, Corin (February 14, 2022). "Funding site linked to Canadian trucker protest hacked, donor info leaked online". The Verge. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Gilbert, David (February 17, 2022). "GiveSendGo Hacker Faces Death Threats for Leaking 'Freedom Convoy' Donor Info". Vice Media Group. Vice News.
- Elizabeth Thompson; Roberto Rocha; Albert Leung (February 14, 2022). "Hacked convoy data shows more than half of donations came from U.S." CBC News. Toronto ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Hackers Just Leaked the Names of 92,000 'Freedom Convoy' Donors". Vice News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Jackson, Hannah (February 22, 2022). "OPP launches internal conduct investigation after members appear to have donated to convoy". Global News. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- Scott, Mark (February 6, 2022). "Ottawa truckers' convoy galvanizes far-right worldwide". Politico. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine (February 14, 2022). "Federal government invokes Emergencies Act for first time ever in response to protests". CBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Shecter, Barbara (February 14, 2022). "Trudeau gives banks power to freeze funds without court order in bid to choke off protest funding". Financial Post. Toronto ON: Postmedia. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Turnbull, Sarah (March 3, 2022). "GoFundMe head testifies over Freedom Convoy fundraising, says most donors were Canadian". CTVNews. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
- Lavery, Irelyne; Connolly, Amanda (February 11, 2022). "Ottawa vows update on COVID-19 border rules next week: 'The worst is behind us'". Global New. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- "Lung tissue study sheds light on fast Omicron spread". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on December 16, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
- "Trucker protests are causing companies to shut down: Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters CEO". Bloomberg News. February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Butler, Martha; Tiedemann, Marlisa (September 22, 2011). The Federal Role in Health and Health Care (PDF) (Report). pp. 11 Publication No. 2011–91-E.
- Favaro, Avis; Jones, Alexandra Mae (January 12, 2022). "COVID-19: Most patients in Toronto ICU unvaccinated". CTV News. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Zimonjic, Peter (January 7, 2022). "Provinces could make vaccination mandatory, says federal health minister". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- "COVID-19 daily epidemiology update". Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). n.d. Retrieved February 11, 2022. Updated regularly starting April 19, 2020.
- Tasker, John Paul (February 4, 2022). "Canada needs to adopt a 'more sustainable' approach to COVID-19, Tam says". CBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Lee, Michael (January 27, 2022). "Vaccine mandates: Restrictions by province and territory". CTV News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "DHS to Require Non-U.S. Individual Travelers Entering the United States at Land Ports of Entry and Ferry Terminals to be Fully Vaccinated Against COVID-19". Homeland Security. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Tiedemann, Marlisa (December 17, 2019). "The Canada Health Act: An Overview". Library of Parliament. Research publications. p. 18. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Karina Aase; Justin Waring; Lene Schibevaag (2017). Researching Quality in Care Transitions: International Perspectives. Springer. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-3-319-62346-7.
- Peggy Leatt; Joseph Mapa (2003). Government Relations in the Health Care Industry. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-56720-513-8.
- Monique Bégin (1988). Medicare: Canada's Right to Health. Optimum Pub. International. p. Intro. ISBN 978-0-88890-219-1.
- Pelley, Lauren (July 31, 2021). "Why the delta variant is spreading COVID-19 so quickly — and what that means for Canada". CBC News. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Miller, Adam (August 14, 2021). "COVID-19 vaccine mandates are coming — whether Canadians want them or not". CBC News. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
- "Canadian private long-term care providers announce COVID-19 vaccine mandate for staff". CBC News. The Canadian Press. August 26, 2021. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
- Loriggio, Paola (January 2, 2022). "Vaccine mandates at work: No single solution, experts say". CTV News. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- "Mandatory COVID-19 vaccination requirements for federally regulated transportation employees and travellers". Transport Canada. October 6, 2021. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- "DHS Releases Details for Fully Vaccinated, Non-Citizen Travelers to Enter the U.S. at Land and Ferry Border Crossings". US Department of Homeland Security. US Gov. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Government of Canada announces adjustments to Canada's border measures". Government of Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada. November 19, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Public Health Agency of Canada involved in 'error' on trucker vaccine rules: CP sources". CBC News. January 21, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Blanchfield, Mike; Taylor, Stephanie (January 24, 2022). "Business groups urge feds to reverse vaccine mandate for cross-border truckers". Global News. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (October 21, 2021). "Vaccine passport: Provinces issuing proof for travel". CTV News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (October 21, 2021). "How to get your Canadian COVID-19 proof of vaccination". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Amato, Sean; Edmonton, CTV News; Contact, Follow (January 7, 2022). "Alberta premier outright refuses federal suggestion of mandatory COVID-19 vaccines". Edmonton. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Bensadoun, Emerald (January 9, 2022). "Is mandatory COVID-19 vaccination coming to Canada? A look at each province and territory's restrictions and vaccine mandate policies". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Smith, John (January 5, 2022). "Truck driver vaccine mandates loom for cross-border operations". Truck News. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Weisgarber, Maria (January 15, 2022). "Vaccine mandate now in effect for cross-border truckers re-entering Canada". CTV News. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Reynolds, Christopher (January 25, 2022). "GoFundMe withholding $4.7 million from trucker convoy until plan presented". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Meissner, Deb (January 23, 2022). "VIDEO: Crowd of supporters greets anti-vaccine-mandate truck convoy as it leaves Vancouver for Ottawa". Smithers Interior News. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- "GoFundMe confirms trucker freedom convoy funds being held until 'clear plan' is revealed". Global News. January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Lambert, Steve (January 25, 2022). "Trucker convoy opposed to COVID-19 vaccine mandates gets big greeting in Winnipeg". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- Haughton, Jay (January 25, 2022). "Freedom Convoy set to roll through Kenora Tuesday night". Kenora Online. Golden West Broadcasting. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "'Freedom convoy' expected to roll through QEW in Hamilton on Thursday morning". Global News. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- Marfo, Dorcas (January 26, 2022). "The 'Freedom Rally' is rolling through Toronto on Thursday. Here's what you need to know". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- "Thunder Bay Police caution motorists about heavy traffic from the truckers' convoy". TBNewsWatch.com.
- Evon, Dan (January 27, 2022). "Did 50,000 'Freedom Convoy' Trucks Set Guinness World Record?". Snopes.com. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- McDonald, Mike (January 28, 2022). "Truck convoy arrives in Sault Ste. Marie". CTV News. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Truck convoy a 'contributing factor' in fatal Chatham-Kent collision: OPP". Windsor. February 21, 2022.
- Voice, Chatham (February 21, 2022). "Freedom convoy a factor in fatal crash: OPP".
- "Truck convoy a 'contributing factor' in fatal crash along Hwy. 401: Police". lfpress.
- Lothian, Robert (January 25, 2022). "Atlantic Canadian Truckers Join 'Freedom Convoy' On Thursday". Country 94. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "P.E.I. trucker joining 'freedom convoy' to Ottawa, trucking association opposes protest". CBC News. January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Protesters against COVID-19 measures gather in Enfield to see off Ottawa-bound convoy". CBC News. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy headed to Ottawa 'peaceful,' says RCMP". CBC News. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Some N.B. truckers join Ottawa-bound protest, but not with trucking group's blessing". CBC News. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Fox, Chris (January 27, 2022). "Trucker protest passes through GTA as crowds line route of 'Freedom Convoy'". CTV News Toronto. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Truckers Freedom Convoy passes through Quebec on Friday". montrealgazette. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Sims, Harley (January 28, 2022). "Nova Scotia bans gatherings along highway in support of trucker freedom convoy". Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "New order bans highway border blockades in Nova Scotia". Atlantic. January 28, 2022.
- Dickson, Janice; Walsh, Marieke (February 4, 2022). "Ottawa police say more officers will be deployed downtown as thousands of protesters are expected this weekend". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
- Osman, Laura; Ibrahim, Erika (February 2, 2022). "Ottawa's top cop says military may be needed to end trucker protest, turned "occupation"". Canada's National Observer. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Kelety, Josh (January 31, 2022). "Trucks, crowds at Canada anti-vaccination protest exaggerated". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Daniel Dale (February 9, 2022). "Fact check: Debunking false claims about the Canadian convoy protests". CNN.
- Warmington, Joe (January 26, 2022). "'Freedom' truckers may form world's longest convoy". Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Fox News brought in Theo Fleury to warn viewers about Canada". Daily Hive Offside. January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Hannity, Sean (January 27, 2022). "TRUCK YEAH: Canada Forms Freedom Convoy of 10K Trucks to Protest Vax Mandates, 'Overreach is Over'". iHeartMedia. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Canada anti-vaccine mandate convoy did not set Guinness World Record". AFP Fact Check. Agence France-Presse. January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Defence chief criticizes protesters for dancing on National War Memorial". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Crawford, Tiffany (January 29, 2022). "Mayor of Terry Fox's hometown in B.C. calls out vaccine mandate protesters for defacing statue". Vancouver Sun. Vancouver BC. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Thousands in Ottawa protest COVID mandates, many rebuked". The Washington Post. Washington DC. Associated Press. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: Protesters clean-up Terry Fox statue in Ottawa following outcry | Watch News Videos Online". Global News.
- "Trucker convoy: Police report no injuries, 'no incidents of violence' after first day of protest". ottawacitizen.
- Somos, Christy (January 30, 2022). "Ottawa braces for day two of trucker protests". CTV News. Ottawa ON. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Massie, Graeme (January 30, 2022). "Soup kitchen says Freedom Convoy truckers 'harassing' staff for meals". The Independent. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "Updates: Officials condemn 'desecration' of monuments, hateful signs on display at trucker convoy protest". The Globe and Mail. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Laube, Aly (February 5, 2022). "Three strange things at the Ottawa "Freedom Convoy"". Daily Hive. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Murphy, Jessica (January 29, 2022). "Freedom Convoy: Why Canadian truckers are protesting in Ottawa". BBC News.
- "Statement by Canadian Trucking Alliance President on Ottawa Protests". cantruck.ca. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Oli, Christopher Nardi, Sharon Kirkey, Swikar (January 30, 2022). "Freedom Convoy 2022 live updates: Ottawa braces for another day of protest". National Post.
- Pringle, Josh; Raymond, Ted (January 30, 2022). "Ottawa police expect another 24 hours of traffic disruptions, demonstrations from 'Freedom Convoy' rally". CTV News Ottawa. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "A sharp jump in Ottawa's COVID-19 wastewater index when trucker convoy arrives". National Post. February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine; Paas-Lang, Christian (January 30, 2022). "Ottawa mayor would like protesters to move on, but organizers say they're not going anywhere". CBC News. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: 'It's time to get our city back' McKenney says; rocks hurled at ambulance". ottawacitizen.
- Raymond, Ted; Woods, Michael (February 1, 2022). "What to expect from the 'Freedom Convoy' protest today". CTV News Ottawa. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: Ford asks protesters to 'let the people of Ottawa live their lives'". ottawacitizen.
- Raymond, Ted; Woods, Michael (February 2, 2022). "Ottawa police arrest third person in 'Freedom Convoy' protests as truckers vow to stay". CTV News Ottawa. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Forester, Brett (February 1, 2022). "Soft police approach to anti-vax protest reveals 'pure racism' say critics". APTN National News. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Forester, Brett (February 1, 2022). "Soft police approach to anti-vax protest reveals 'pure racism' say critics". APTN News. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Algonquin Nation issues statement saying 'does not support' ceremony, and truckers convoy actions on traditional territory". APTN National News. February 2, 2022. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy: No plans to call in military, says Trudeau". BBC. February 3, 2022.
- Pringle, Josh (February 3, 2022). "Protesters build wooden structure in downtown Ottawa park". CTV News. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Press, Jordan (February 6, 2022). "Ottawa mayor declares state of emergency as police crackdown on convoy supplies". CP24.
- Nick Boisvert; Peter Zimonjic (February 7, 2022). "'It has to stop': Trudeau accuses protesters of blockading 'democracy' during Commons debate". CBC News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "Canada's NDP leader says trucker convoy aims to 'overthrow' gov't". Al-Jazeera. Qatar. February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "Hong Kong to Weigh Curbs; Trudeau Slams Truckers: Virus Update". Financial Post. Toronto ON. Bloomberg News. February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "Trucker protests: Ottawa police investigating children living inside convoy trucks". Global News. February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Michael Woods; Ted Raymond (February 8, 2022). "About 100 convoy trucks in downtown Ottawa have children living inside: police". CTV News Ottawa. Ottawa ON. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Osman, Laura (February 8, 2022). "Roughly 100 kids living in trucks involved in Ottawa convoy protest, say police". The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Fact Check- Video of former member of Trudeau's security detail speaking against vaccine mandates predates trucker protest". Reuters. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Pugliese, David (February 13, 2022). "Two members of military counter-terrorism unit under investigation for allegedly taking part in convoy protests". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- "Indigenous leaders condemn misappropriation of Orange Shirt Day by protest convoy". CBC News. February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Carter, Adam (February 11, 2022). "Ontario declares state of emergency in response to convoy protests". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- MacDonald, Christine; Wisely, John; Altavena, Lily (February 12, 2022). "Trucks are gone from Ambassador Bridge, but more protesters arrive on foot". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "Ambassador Bridge: Police launch bid to clear Canada trucker blockade". BBC News. February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: 25 arrests made, 1,775 tickets issued since start of protests; Police say there's a 'concerted effort' to flood 911 line". Ottawa Citizen. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "Protesters briefly target Ottawa airport as demonstration reaches 2-week mark". CBC News. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "UPDATE: Ottawa police negotiate for number of protest trucks to leave Coventry Road, Bank and Laurier areas". CityNews Ottawa. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Connolly, Amanda; Lord, Craig; Stober, Eric (February 10, 2022). "Ottawa police say 'flood' of false 911 calls came 'significantly' from U.S. sources". Global News. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Cochrane, David (February 12, 2022). "Office of the Mayor letter to Keith Wilson". Twitter. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Pringle, Josh (February 13, 2022). "Ottawa mayor says truckers have agreed to leave residential neighbourhoods". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- "Ottawa police chief resigns amid anti-mandate protests". BBC News. February 15, 2022.
- Sara Frizzell; Shaamini Yogaretnam (February 17, 2022). "Convoy protest organizers Tamara Lich, Chris Barber arrested in Ottawa". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Villarreal, Daniel (February 17, 2022). "Canadian Trucker Convoy Organizers Barber, Lich Arrested, in Custody". Newsweek. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Star staff and wire services (February 17, 2022). "Convoy protests: Protest organizers Tamara Lich, Chris Barber arrested in Ottawa". New Hamburg Independent. Metroland Media Group. Toronto Star. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "Pat King, leader of the "Freedom Convoy" arrested live on social media". ottawasun.
- "Convoy leader Pat King to hear bail decision Friday as woman puts up $50K in support". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 22, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- Mia Rabson; Jim Bronskill (February 22, 2022). "Key convoy organizer Tamara Lich denied bail while Patrick King appears in court". The Brandon Sun. Brandon MB. The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- McGregor, Glen (February 22, 2022). "Okay, I'm back in after multiple attempts. Crown Moiz Karimjee is continuing his cross of proposed surety Kerry Komix, asking about Facebook post in which she is listed as creator of a crypto donation platform "Tokens for Truckers."". Twitter. Retrieved February 22, 2022. McGregor is a CTV National News journalist.
- "'Freedom Convoy' leader Pat King denied bail, remains in jail". CBC News. February 24, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- Helmer, Aedan (March 1, 2022). "Third accused convoy leader remains in custody as Tyson 'Freedom George' Billings denied bail". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- "Cleanup crews replace protesters in downtown Ottawa as heavy police presence remains". CBC News. Toronto ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 20, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- "Les manifestants d'Ottawa se rassemblent à un nouvel emplacement". TVA Nouvelles (in French). Montreal QC: Groupe TVA. February 20, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
Dimanche après-midi, des dizaines de camionneurs et leurs partisans avaient convergé vers le relais routier Herb’s de Vankleek Hill.
- Mélanie Marquis; Henri Ouellette-Vézina; Florence Morin-Martel (February 20, 2022). "L'occupation terminée à Ottawa, des groupes se relocalisent". La Presse (in French). Montreal QC: La Presse Inc. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- Erin Anderssen; Marieke Walsh (February 21, 2022). "Convoy protestors uncertain about future after Ottawa blockades end with no resolution". Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "Trucker Protest: Day 24 — 'Businesses should feel safe to reopen', police say; 191 arrested". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. February 20, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- McIntyre, Bruce (February 22, 2022). "Protesters hole up on farm near Arnprior". The Eganville Leader. Eganville ON: The Eganville Leader. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- LeBrun, Luke (February 17, 2022). "The Convoy is Dividing a Rural Community Being Used as a Staging Ground for the Illegal Siege of Ottawa". PressProgress. Ottawa ON: Institut Broadbent Institute. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- Radio-Canada (February 11, 2022). "Des manifestants contre les mesures sanitaires s'installent à Embrun". ICI Ottawa-Gatineau (in French). Ottawa ON. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- "Trudeau concerned blockades could return in Ottawa, says convoy stopped en route". CBC News Manitoba. Toronto ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The Canadian Press. February 21, 2022. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- Woods, Michael (February 24, 2022). "Ottawa police chief 'confident' in ability to keep downtown secure". CTV News Ottawa. Toronto ON: BellMedia. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- Charles Antoine Gagnon; Julien Paquette (February 24, 2022). "Surveillance étroite du centre-ville d'Ottawa à l'approche du week-end [Close monitoring of downtown Ottawa as the weekend approaches]". le Droit (in French). Montreal QC. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- Elsiufi, Rachelle (March 5, 2022). "Two weeks after convoy occupation, opposing rallies take to Ottawa's downtown". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
- Lavery, Irelyne (March 26, 2022). "Vehicle convoy rolls through downtown Ottawa on its way to Vankleek Hill". Global News. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
- Lichtenstein, Grace Lichtenstein (July 28, 1976). "About the Only Thing That Divides Two Towns on Montana‐Canada Line Is the Border". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Haney, Shaun. "Why the Coutts border crossing is so critical for Western Canada's meatpacking and cattle sector". Real Agriculture. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Tait, Carrie; Kirkup, Kristy; Carbert, Michelle; Cryderman, Kelly (February 1, 2022). "Protesters at Alberta border blockade defy RCMP orders to disband". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Rodriguez, Michael (January 31, 2022). "Protesters ignore RCMP warnings as blockade at Coutts border crossing continues". Calgary Herald. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Leavitt, Kieran (February 1, 2022). "Alberta RCMP assaulted in attempt to remove Coutts border blockade, Kenney says". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Williams, Radana (January 30, 2022). "Protestors continue blockade at Coutts border crossing". Global News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Drinkwater, Rob (January 30, 2022). "Jason Kenney says truckers' Coutts border blockade violates traffic laws and must end". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy: Blockade at Alberta border crossing 'unlawful'". BBC. February 1, 2022. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "RCMP investigate serious collision during southern Alberta convoy protest". February 5, 2022.
- "Coutts port of entry temporarily suspended: CBSA | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
- "Operations at Coutts, Alta., crossing disrupted until further notice". Calgary. February 12, 2022.
- "Emergencies Act a 'turning point' to end trucker 'occupation': Ottawa interim police chief". CTVNews. February 15, 2022.
- "RCMP arrest 13 people, seize weapons and ammunition near Coutts border blockade | Globalnews.ca".
- Eleven people arrested, weapons seized, at Coutts Alberta border blockade at MyPrinceGeorgeNow.com; published February 14, 2022; via archive.org
- Pruden, Jana G. (February 15, 2022). "RCMP charge four men with plotting to murder officers in connection with Coutts border protest". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
- "2nd day of Ambassador Bridge protest halts vehicles from leaving Michigan, limits Windsor to U.S. traffic". CBC News. February 8, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Hicks, Mark (February 7, 2022). "Police: Ambassador Bridge traffic to U.S. open after Canada protest". The Detroit News.
- "Supporters of trucker convoy delay traffic at Canada's busiest border crossing". CTV News. February 7, 2022.
- Murphy, Jessica; Debusmann Jr, Bernd (February 8, 2022). "Canada truckers protest: Ambassador Bridge reopened". BBC News.
- "2nd day of Ambassador Bridge protest halts vehicles from leaving Michigan, limits Windsor to U.S. traffic". CBC News Windsor. Windsor ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 8, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- Jackson, Hannah (February 9, 2022). "Ford Canada shuts Windsor auto plant as Ambassador Bridge blockade continues". Global News. Toronto ON: Corus Entertainment. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Ford, Toyota halt some output amid Canadian trucker protests". Reuters. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022 – via Al Jazeera.
- "Protesters allow traffic lane to open at Ambassador Bridge as Ontario court hears injunction attempt". CBC. February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- "Police, protesters in standoff at Ambassador Bridge as clear-out efforts stall | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
- Bilefsky, Dan; Isai, Vjosa; Breeden, Aurelien (February 12, 2022). "Canada Live Updates: Police Begin Clearing Truckers Blocking Ontario Bridge". The New York Times.
- "Windsor police make several arrests as officers begin removal of protesters at Ambassador Bridge". CityNews. February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Gollom, Mark; Craggs, Samantha (February 13, 2022). "Police break up remaining protest at Windsor's Ambassador Bridge, make 12 arrests". CBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- "Key US-Canada bridge reopens after police clear protesters". AP NEWS. February 13, 2022.
- Rocca, Ryan (February 9, 2022). "Windsor officials requesting assistance as Ambassador Bridge blockade continues". Global News. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Celina Tebor; Ryan W. Miller (February 11, 2022). "Canadian mayor seeks injunction to clear truck protest at US border". USA Today. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- "Court grants injunction against Ambassador Bridge blockade". CBC News. February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Riley Beggin; Jordyn Grzelewski; Kalea Hall (February 11, 2022). "Ontario judge orders Ambassador Bridge protesters to stop blockade". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Velshi MSNBC February 12, 2022
- Francis X. Donnelly; James David Dickson (February 12, 2022). "Authorities, protesters in stalemate over Ambassador Bridge blockade; arrest made". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Kayla Tarnowski; Julio Cesar Chavez (February 13, 2022). "Key bridge to U.S. remains closed as Canada police clear protesters". Reuters. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Sarah Rahal (February 14, 2022). "Arrest, tow totals from the Ambassador Bridge blockade in Windsor". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Police intercepted Ottawa convoy suspected of heading to Windsor, Ont". CBC. February 16, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Boutilier, Alex; Gilmore, Rachel. "Far-right groups hope trucker protest will be Canada's 'January 6th'". Global News. Corus Entertainment. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Zimonjic, Peter. "Organizer behind anti-vaccine mandate convoy says it won't tolerate extremists as online rhetoric heats up". CBC. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- ""Freedom Convoy" organizer says it's not affiliated with extremist groups | News". dailyhive.com. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Organizer behind anti-vaccine mandate convoy says it won't tolerate extremists as online rhetoric heats up". www.msn.com. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Swastikas displayed at Canadian 'Freedom Convoy' protests against vaccination mandates". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. January 30, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Head of Canadian Military Condemns Anti-Vax Convoy Protesters 'Dancing on Tomb of the Unknown Soldier'". PressProgress. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Trudeau says 'very small, very angry' trucker convoy is trying to 'lash out' – National | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "MPs Told to Hide From Anti-Vaxxer Convoy by Parliament Security Chief". Vice World News. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Leyland Cecco; Amru Salahuddien; Tracey Lindeman (February 3, 2022). "Ottawa protests: tensions grow as 'intolerable' truck blockade paralyzes Canada capital". The Guardian. London UK. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- Andrew Russell; Stewart Bell (December 1, 2021). "Self-declared 'Queen of Canada' detained by RCMP after alleged threats to health-care workers". Global News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- Baragona, Justin (February 3, 2022). "QAnon Flags Fly Onscreen After Fox News Describes Anti-Vax Truckers as Mainstream". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Reynolds, Christopher; Ibrahim, Erika (January 24, 2022). "Trucker convoy raises millions in funds as vaccine-hesitant supporters flock to cause". The Toronto Star. Toronto Star Newspapers. The Canada Press. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Wexit Co-Founder Threatens Demonstrators Ahead Of Second Counter Protest". Canadian Anti-Hate Network. September 17, 2020. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Video: King dives head first into the Great Replacement/white genocide myth". Twitter. @vestscanada. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Helwig, David (February 11, 2022). "The former Sault man at the heart of the trucker convoy". SooToday.com. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Climenhaga, David (January 24, 2022). "Who's Fuelling the Truckers Protesting Vaccine Mandates?". The Tyee. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Smith, Peter; Simons, Elizabet. "M-103 to the pandemic: evolution of Canadian Islamophobic activists shows how hate movements adapt". Antihate.ca. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Boutilier, Alex (August 19, 2019). "FEDERAL ELECTION Bernier tries to walk line between libertarianism and identity politics at People's Party's first national convention". Hamilton Spectator. Metroland Media Group. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- Gilmore, Rachel. "Some trucker convoy organizers have history of white nationalism, racism". Global News. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
'One of the admins on their website is actually somebody who's like the vice president of the Soldiers of Odin, a skinhead group in Sudbury, Ont.,' said Dr. Carmen Celestini, a post-doctoral fellow with the Disinformation Project at Simon Fraser University. 'His name is Jason LaFace. He also uses other names, but he is a vice president of this group, which organize events that will try to stop immigration, people who are BIPOC or people who are in LGBTQ communities.'
- "'Freedom convoy' rolls through Ottawa encouraging the participation of Canada's far-right". The Conversation. February 3, 2020.
Steenburg made headlines when he posted a Soldiers of Odin logo (a known far-right hate group) on his social media page with captions encouraging Canadians to stand up for their rights.
- "Analysis of guns and ammunition seized near Coutts, Alta. blockade". Calgary. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- "5 arrested in Vancouver as rocks thrown, cars kicked during pandemic rallies, police say". CBC News. February 5, 2022. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- de Flaviis, Sissi (February 7, 2022). "Another weekend of COVID-19 protests sparks counter-protest in Whitehorse". CBC News. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Andrew Duffy; Elizabeth Payne (February 4, 2022). "Counter protest to take to the streets this weekend". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Kestler-D'Amours, Jillian (February 4, 2022). "Ottawa residents decry anti-vaccine trucker 'occupation'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Porter, Kate (February 5, 2022). "Avoid counter-protests this weekend, urge seasoned activists and police". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Farooqui, Salmaan (February 5, 2022). "Trucker convoy demonstrations spread across Canada as counter-protests call for an end to disruptions". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Lavoie, Joanna (February 11, 2022). "Toronto health-care workers organize - then call off - second Freedom Convoy counterprotest". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Counter-protest in Ottawa". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Off, Carol; Howden, Chris (February 25, 2022). "As it Happens February 14, 2022 Episode Transcript". CBC. Archived from the original on February 16, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: Counter-protesters block convoy traffic; Convoy organizers plan to 'consolidate' efforts around Parliament Hill; Arrests in Windsor as Ambassador Bridge cleared". Ottawa Citizen. February 14, 2022. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Counter-protests grow, block convoys on 3rd weekend of downtown demonstrations". CBC News. February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "These Ottawans became internet famous countering convoy protesters". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- Dickson, E. J. (February 10, 2022). "A Porno-Metal Song About Gay Cowboys Is Disrupting the Anti-Vax Trucker Convoy". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Maher, Stephen (January 26, 2022). "The grassroots action against Erin O'Toole's leadership has begun". Macleans.ca. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Grant, Demar (February 11, 2022). "What is Zello? Inside the app that helped organize "freedom convoy" blockades". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Kirkup, Kristy; Walsh, Marieke; Carbert, Michelle (February 15, 2022). "Ottawa Police Chief Peter Sloly resigns amid criticism of how vaccine-mandate protests were handled". Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "Chief Peter Sloly remarks during Media availability". Ottawa Police Service. January 31, 2022. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Woods, Michael; Pringle, Josh (January 28, 2022). "Heavy police presence as truckers arrive in downtown Ottawa". CTV News Ottawa. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "City of Ottawa considering legal action to recoup protest costs". CBC. January 31, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Casaletto, Lucas (January 27, 2022). "Letter sent to parliamentarians warning of doxing ahead of trucker convoy: 'Go somewhere safe'". Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (January 27, 2022). "MPs warned about security risks related to convoy, O'Toole plans to meet truckers". CTV News. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Tasker, John Paul (January 29, 2022). "Thousands opposed to COVID-19 rules converge on Parliament Hill". CBC. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy 2022 live updates: Trudeau relocated due to security concerns". National Post. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Canadian Press (January 28, 2022). "Ottawa police call in reinforcements as convoy takes up positions around Parliament". Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Ling, Justin (February 17, 2022). "Canada was warned before protests that violent extremists infiltrated convoy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Porter, Catherine (February 12, 2022). "In Ottawa Trucker Protests, a Pressing Question: Where Were the Police?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Carbert, Michelle (February 12, 2022). "For Ottawa's Chief Peter Sloly, police response to protests pits his progressive views against a complicated threat". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Chianello, Joanne (February 5, 2022). "No end in sight to Ottawa protests, not enough resources, says police chief". CBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Gervais, Brittany (February 1, 2022). "Negotiation usually comes first when dealing with large protests, criminal law experts explain". Calgary Herald. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Pringle, Josh; Raymond, Ted (February 12, 2022). "Trucker protest: Ottawa police form new command centre with RCMP and OPP". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (February 13, 2022). "Feds prepared to use emergency powers to end blockades, but police must 'do their job': Blair". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (February 15, 2022). "Emergencies Act: Feds outline next steps". CTV News. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Bilefsky, Dan; Nir, Sarah Maslin; Kitroeff, Natalie; Austen, Ian (February 18, 2022). "Canada Live Updates: Police Clamp Down on Ottawa Protesters". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Trucker convoy: Police are making arrests in Ottawa". CTV News. February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Convoy leader arrested as police and protesters clash at downtown Ottawa occupation". CBC. Ottawa, Ontario. February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Charges laid in relation to Unlawful Protests in Ottawa". Ottawa ON: Ottawa Police Service. February 19, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Aziz, Saba; Connolly, Amanda (February 19, 2022). "Ottawa police say convoy blockade 'aggressive;' some arrested with body armour, smoke grenades". Global News. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine; Paas-Lang, Christian (February 19, 2022). "Ottawa police now using a chemical irritant as they push back protest crowd". CBC. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Ottawa Police Chief Bell (February 19, 2022). Media Availability. Media availability. Event occurs at 32:00. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Amy Cheng; Jennifer Hassan (February 10, 2022). "'Freedom Convoy' protesters who block streets could be 'arrested without a warrant,' Ottawa police warn". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Amanda Coletta; Amy Cheng; Jennifer Hassan (February 9, 2022). "Canada's capital is jammed, its border crossings are blockaded, and there's no end in sight". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Tumilty, Ryan (February 11, 2022). "The consequences are becoming more and more severe,' Freedom convoy warned". National Post.
- Blatchford, Andy (February 11, 2022). "Biden, Trudeau talk convoys as U.S. braces for Canadian-style protests". Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Jones, Allison; Alhmidi, Maan (February 11, 2022). "Ontario premier declares state of emergency in response to protests". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Cecco, Leyland (February 11, 2022). "Ontario declares state of emergency, threatening fines and jail time to end blockade". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Ian Austen; Dan Bilefsky (February 17, 2022). "Ontario provincial police mobilize in possible preparation to disperse protesters". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Miriam Berger; Amanda Coletta; Maite Fernández Simon; Ellen Francis (February 17, 2022). "Ottawa police presence grows as interim chief vows 'imminent' action to 'take back' city from 'Freedom Convoy' protesters". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Stoodley, Chris (February 18, 2022). "Trucker convoy protests, winter storm to affect OC Transpo service". CityNews Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Rogers Media. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Neustaeter, Brooklyn (February 17, 2022). "Ottawa police make arrests as protesters ignore demands to leave". CTVNews. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Michael Woods, Josh Pringle (February 18, 2022). "Ottawa police arrest 70 people as officers move to clear convoy protest". CTV News. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Stoodley, Chris (February 18, 2022). "Police send in mounted officers to 'create critical space' from 'assaultive' protesters". CityNews Ottawa. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Zoke (uploader) (February 19, 2022). "LIVE Ottawa - RAW Footage: Freedom Convoy 2022 Day 23- 2ND DAY OF CHAOS - Saturday, Feb 19". YouTube. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- Travel Fun 69 (February 19, 2022). "Truckers Freedom Convoy 2022 In Ottawa, Canada Feb 19 Part 2". YouTube. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- Miriam Berger (February 19, 2022). "'Freedom Convoy' demonstrators admit protest is near end but vow to reorganize: 'We are going to win'". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Paas-Lang, Christian (February 6, 2022). "Ottawa declares state of emergency as police boost enforcement, target protest's fuel supply". CBC News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- "Ottawa declares state of emergency amid trucker convoy protest". Global News. Toronto ON. The Canadian Press. February 6, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- "Premier Ford declares state of emergency in Ontario over blockade; court grants Ambassador Bridge injunction". CTVNews. February 11, 2022.
- "'Freedom convoy' protests: Injunction granted to remove Windsor blockade; Ontario's state of emergency". The Toronto Star. February 11, 2022. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/protesters-ambassador-bridge-windsor-covid-deadline-1.6349424[bare URL]
- Davidson, Sean; Alberga, Hannah (February 23, 2022). "Ontario terminates state of emergency put in place for trucker convoy protest". CTV News Toronto. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- MacCharles, Tonda (February 23, 2022). "Justin Trudeau lifts Emergencies Act". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- Gallant, Jacques (February 14, 2022). "The Emergencies Act has been invoked. What does that mean?". The Star. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- MacCharles, Tonda; Ballingall, Alex (February 14, 2022). "Justin Trudeau invokes Emergencies Act to stop 'Freedom Convoy' protests". The Star. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Catharine Tunney; Christian Paas-Lang (February 13, 2022). "Government considering emergency powers with 'appropriate caution,' federal minister says". CBC News. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "CCLA warns normalizing emergency legislation threatens democracy, civil liberties". Global News. Canadian Press. February 15, 2022. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Passifiume, Bryan (February 18, 2022). "'Legal standard not met': Two court challenges filed over Trudeau's use of Emergencies Act". National Post. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Bradshaw, James; Curry, Bill (February 14, 2022). "Emergencies Act will expand powers of Canadian banks to freeze accounts, halt funds". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Major, Darren (February 21, 2022). "Emergencies Act passes crucial House of Commons vote with NDP support". CBC News. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- "'Immediate emergency situation is over': PM Trudeau revokes Emergencies Act". CTVNews. February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- "Vaccine mandate protesters force highway closure at Canada-U.S. border in Surrey as rallies enter 3rd weekend". CBC News. Vancouver BC: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Little, Simon (February 12, 2022). "Convoy vehicles break through RCMP barricades as B.C. border crossing effectively closed". Global News. Vancouver BC. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Surrey Mounties blocking anti-vaccine mandate truck convoy at U.S. border". Vancouver Sun. Vancouver BC: Postmedia. February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Arrests as RCMP clear protest near Pacific Highway border crossing in B.C." CP24. Toronto ON: BellMedia. The Canadian Press. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Smith, Charlie (February 13, 2022). "Surrey RCMP arrest four protesters near Pacific Highway border crossing". The Georgia Straight. Vancouver BC. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Claire Fenton; Monika Gul (February 15, 2022). "Pacific Highway border open, 12 more protesters arrested". Vancouver BC: Rogers Media. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Emerson border remains blocked, no arrests made: RCMP". Winnipeg. February 11, 2022.
- Bernhardt, Darren (February 16, 2022). "'A perfect solution': Manitoba border blockade ends as RCMP escort protesters away". CBC News. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "Blockade protesters leave Emerson border with police escort". Winnipeg. February 16, 2022.
- Wilson, Kerrisa (February 5, 2022). "Huge crowd of protesters hold anti-mandate protest in downtown Toronto". CP24. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- "Protesters, counter-protesters flood the downtown core; Ontario farmers' group denounces tractor rallies". The Toronto Star. February 5, 2022. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- Aguilar, Bryann (February 4, 2022). "Health-care workers announce counter protest to convoy in Toronto". CTV News Toronto. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Jones, Hannah (February 6, 2022). "Man, 34, arrested after feces thrown during anti-mandate protest in Toronto". Global News.
- MacLean, Cameron (February 7, 2022). "Downtown Winnipeg residents losing patience with convoy protest noise". CBC News Manitoba. Winnipeg MB: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Thompson, Sam (February 7, 2022). "Winnipeg has fared 'better than any other city' with truck protest: police". Global News. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Bissett, Kevin (February 11, 2022). "Hundreds gather in Fredericton to protest COVID-19 measures". Canadian Press. Retrieved February 14, 2022 – via CTV News.
- Leger, Isabelle (February 12, 2022). "Despite larger crowds, Fredericton mayor finds second day of protests peaceful". CBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Cox, Aidan; Leger, Isabelle. "Police say Fredericton protest 'ongoing' as Day 3 wraps up". CBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Nova Scotia outlaws support on highway for 'freedom' truckers days after massive protest Fox News
- Hundreds of vehicles ride through Halifax in 'Freedom Convoy' CTV News
- Nova Scotia 'Freedom Convoy' makes its way to Halifax Global News
- Emily Mertz, Caley Gibson (February 12, 2022). "Judge grants City of Edmonton interim injunction for downtown protest convoys". Global News. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Chacon, Chris (February 13, 2022). "Anger, frustration over how Edmonton police handled counter-protest and convoy noise: councillor". Global News. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Lee, Michael (February 5, 2022). "Demonstrators descend on Ottawa as 'freedom convoy' protests spread beyond capital". CTV News. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- Rosella, Louie (February 5, 2022). "Freedom Convoy of truckers in Oakville, Square One, Sherway Gardens, Vaughan Mills and across the GTA en route to Queen's Park in Toronto". Inside Halton. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- Little, Simon (February 5, 2022). "Five arrested as anti-COVID-19 mandate convoys, rallies staged in British Columbia". Global News. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Quon, Alexander (February 7, 2022). "Health mandate protesters near Sask. Legislature leave after police issue more than 30 tickets". CBC News Saskatchewan. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Toy, Adam (February 7, 2022). "Calgary police lay 80 charges in connection with convoy protest". Global News. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- "Vaccine-mandate protest rolls through downtown Charlottetown". CBC News. February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- McKeen, Alex; Harvey, Lex; Leavitt, Kieran (February 3, 2022). "How Canada's 'Freedom Convoy' is inspiring protests in other countries". Toronto Star.
- Tindale, Lanie; Crowe, Alex (February 7, 2022). "Latest updates on Convoy to Canberra protest Millions Against Mandatory Vaccination impact on ACT". Canberra Times. Archived from the original on February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Mac Dougall, David (February 9, 2022). "Protests highlight Finnish frustrations at ongoing COVID restrictions". Euronews.
- Klarmann, Michael (February 9, 2022). "Freedom Convoy: Nach Ottawa nun Berlin?". Blick nach Rechts.
- Clermont-Goulet, Jean-Michel (February 9, 2022). "Le "convoi de la liberté" d'Ottawa en a inspiré plus d'un à travers le monde". 24heures.ca.
- Hämäläinen, Veli-Pekka; Mattinen, Johanna (February 9, 2022). ""Me saadaan oikeasti koko Helsinki tukkoon" – tästä on kyse sosiaalisen median kapinaryhmässä, joka aikoo aiheuttaa kaaoksen perjantaina Helsingissä". Finnish Broadcasting Company.
- Walker, David (February 4, 2022). "Scottish 'Freedom Convoy' heading for London to support Canadian truckers' and call for end to Covid rules". Scottish Daily Express. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- Joseph Ataman; Lianne Kolirin; Mick Krever; Aliza Kassim Khalidi (February 10, 2022). "Paris and Brussels ban protests linked to French 'Freedom Convoy'". CNN. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "Paris police ban 'Freedom Convoy' protest against COVID restrictions". euronews. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Cokelaere, Hanne (February 12, 2022). "French police fine hundreds in an attempt to fend off 'freedom convoys'". Politico. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Schrader, Adam. "French police tear gas 'Freedom Convoy' protesters in Paris". UPI. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Younis, Omar; Swanson, David (February 23, 2022). "Inspired by Canadian truck protests, 'People's Convoy' heads to Washington". Reuters. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- Khalil, Ashraf; C. Baldor, Lolita (February 23, 2022). "National Guard to deploy 700 troops in D.C. to control truck convoy, says Pentagon". Global News. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- Gonzalez, Oscar (March 2, 2022). "Truck Convoys Heading to DC but With Less Fanfare". CNET. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
- Hesson, Ted (March 5, 2022). "More than 1,000 trucks and cars roll in to Washington area in 'People's Convoy'". National Post. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
- Petrizzo, Zachary (March 28, 2022). "People's Convoy Gives Up After Accomplishing Nothing in D.C." The Daily Beast. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- "Convoy organizer warns of 'free-for-all' if police ban protest from downtown Ottawa". CTV News Ottawa. Toronto ON: BellMedia. The Canadian Press. April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Laucius, Joanne (April 30, 2022). "'Rolling Thunder' starts out slowly, but situation starts bubbling up in evening". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
- Miller, Jacquie (April 28, 2022). "Rolling Thunder: What we know about the weekend motorcycle rally right now". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Quenneville, Guy (April 29, 2022). "Ottawa police arrest 7, tow vehicles on Day 1 of weekend rally". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
- Lapierre, Matthew (April 29, 2022). "Ottawans unite to show opposition to 'Rolling Thunder' rally". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
- "COMMITTEES DEDC Special Joint Committee on the Declaration of Emergency". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
- Wherry, Aaron (March 6, 2022). "The committee reviewing Trudeau's use of the Emergencies Act faces a daunting task". CBC.
- Boutilier, Alex (March 24, 2022). "Committee examining Liberals' emergency powers debates scope of inquiry". Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.
- "INVOCATION OF THE EMERGENCY ACT AND RELATED MEASURES". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
- "CROWDFUNDING PLATFORMS AND EXTREMISM FINANCING". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
- "OCCUPATION OF OTTAWA AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S RESPONSE TO CONVOY BLOCKADES". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine (February 25, 2022). "Mounties used emergency powers as a 'big deterrent,' says head of RCMP". CBC.
- Ibrahim, Erika (March 24, 2022). "Convoy protest was a national security threat, Ontario police boss says". Victoria Times Colonist Glacier Media Digital. The Canadian Press.
- Kirkup, Kristy; Carbert, Michelle (May 19, 2022). "Public Safety Minister stands by statements that law enforcement recommended using Emergencies Act". The Globe and Mail Inc.
- Ritchie, Sarah (May 17, 2022). "Ottawa's interim police chief didn't ask for Emergencies Act during Freedom Convoy". CBC. The Canadian Press.
- Woods, Michael (May 17, 2022). "No direct request for Emergencies Act from Ottawa police, interim chief says". BellMedia. CTV News.
- Kirkup, Kristy; Spearchief-Morris, Joy (May 17, 2022). "Ottawa Police did not make direct request for invocation of Emergencies Act, says interim chief". The Globe and Mail Inc.
- Ritchie, Sarah (May 17, 2022). "Ottawa interim police chief Steve Bell didn't ask feds to invoke Emergencies Act". BellMedia. CP24.
- Benson, Stuart (May 11, 2022). "RCMP neither requested nor planned for Emergencies Act powers, commissioner tells MPs, Senators". Hill Times Publishing.
- Kiertzner, Jim (February 15, 2022). "Ambassador Bridge blockage cost could be $1 billion to US, Canadian economy". WXYZ News. Detroit. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Leonhardt, Megan (February 14, 2022). "Here's how much the 'Freedom Convoy' has cost the U.S. and Canada". Fortune. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Ambassador Bridge: Canada court orders end to trucker blockade". February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Tarnowski, Kayla; Morgan, David; Helgren, Chris (February 14, 2022). "U.S.-Canada bridge reopens after police clear protesters". Reuters. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- Pittis, Don (February 14, 2022). "As the blockades have shown, anarchy is usually bad for business". CBC News. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Yalnizyan, Armine (February 23, 2022). "Why you'll help foot the bill for billions lost due to Ottawa protests — whatever your views". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- Gaviola, Anne (February 8, 2022). "Economic impacts of trucker convoy protests could be felt for months, experts warn". Global News. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "CityNews". toronto.citynews.ca.
- "$14.1 million spent on police over 18 days of Ottawa convoy occupation". Ottawa. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Megan Gillis; Matthew Lapierre; Taylor Blewett (February 22, 2022). "Rideau Centre reopens for the day after police investigation, arrest". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "Arrest made as police evacuate Ottawa's Rideau Centre". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 22, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- Marquis, Mélanie (February 22, 2022). "L'intervention policière est terminée au Centre Rideau". La Presse (in French). Montreal QC. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "More Ottawa residents, businesses join lawsuit against protesters". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 22, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "How 'Make Ottawa Boring Again' went from inside joke to serious fundraiser". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
- Thomas, Stephanie (February 3, 2022). "Coutts, Alta., border blockade estimated loss of $220M economic activity: industry experts". CTV News. Calgary. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters calls for reopening of Coutts border crossing". Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters. Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters. February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Guse, Jessika (February 3, 2022). "'It was terrifying': Woman says family vehicle was hit during rush of Coutts protesters | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Dan Bilefsky; Allison Hannaford (February 15, 2022). "Protesters begin leaving Alberta border crossing". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Graveland, Bill (February 15, 2022). "Border operations resume after Coutts blockade dismantled in southern Alberta | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Lindeman, Tracey (February 9, 2022). "US-Canada bridge blockade risks huge economic damage, governments warn". The Guardian. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Bronskill, Jim (February 1, 2022). "Ottawa officials defend soft police response to disruptive protesters". Canada's National Observer. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Selley, Chris (February 4, 2022). "Chris Selley: Ottawa police are here to help ...further erode confidence in government". National Post.
- Mason, Gary (February 3, 2022). "Opinion: With the trucker convoy, the Ottawa police deliver a masterclass on how not to handle a protest". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
- Bronskill, Jim (January 31, 2022). "City officials defend Ottawa police response as protest gridlock sparks criticism". Toronto Star.
- Lord, Craig (February 3, 2022). "Ottawa police hand out 30 tickets, including for honking, over convoy disruptions". Global News.
- Drake, Anna (February 8, 2022). "So-called "Freedom Convoy" is a symptom of a deeply unequal society". Institute for Research on Public Policy. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Chianello, Joanne (February 4, 2022). "Ottawa police hire elite crisis-management firm to handle protest messaging". CBC News. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- Boutilier, Alex (February 13, 2022). "Trudeau government actively considering emergency powers to end blockades: Blair". Global News. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
- Kirkup, Kristy; Walsh, Marieke; Carbert, Michelle (February 15, 2022). "Ottawa Police Chief Peter Sloly resigns amid criticism of how vaccine-mandate protests were handled". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Kate Porter; Joanne Chianello (February 16, 2022). "Diane Deans ousted from police services board by 15 members of council". CBC News. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Craig Lord; Saba Aziz (February 16, 2022). "Ottawa city council ousts Diane Deans as police board chair". Global News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Willing, Jon (February 16, 2022). "Council turfs police board leader Diane Deans amid trucker protest tensions". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: Postmedia. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- "News Release" (Press release). Ottawa, Ontario: Special Investigations Unit. February 20, 2022. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- Raymond, Ted (February 20, 2022). "Ontario police watchdog investigating use of horses, non-lethal rounds at Ottawa protest clearing". CTV News. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- City TV
- Willing, Jon (February 24, 2022). "Police board asks provincial watchdog to investigate 'freedom' occupation response". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa ON: PostMedia. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
- Fraser, David (May 16, 2022). "Police, NCC emails show communication breakdown during Freedom Convoy". CBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- Jackson, Hannah (January 30, 2022). "'Several' investigations underway after monuments defaced during Ottawa trucker rally: police". Global News. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Gillies, Rob; Lindeman, Tracey (February 7, 2022). "Canada pushes back against GOP support for COVID protests". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles CA. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Murphy, Jessica; Debusmann Jr, Bernd (February 7, 2022). "Canada truckers: Arrests as police warn of 'volatile' protesters". BBC.com.
- "Police charge 1 man, search for 2nd in arson during occupation of Ottawa", CBC News
- "Ottawa police have charged a second man with arson after fire in downtown apartment", by Sarah Ritchie, Canadian Press
- McGregor, Glen; Aiello, Rachel (February 4, 2022). "Lawsuit filed against convoy organizers, seeking damages on behalf of downtown Ottawa residents". CTV News. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
- "After night of fireworks, calls from convoy organizers for quieter morning go unheard". CBC News. February 6, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Raymond, Ted; Pringle, Josh (February 5, 2022). "Hearing into lawsuit to stop convoy horns in Ottawa adjourned to Monday". CTV News Ottawa. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Paas-Lang, Christian (February 5, 2022). "Ottawa protest's lawyer floats chance of quieter nights as police say resources are stretched thin". Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- Ranger, Michael (February 7, 2022). "Judge grants injunction against honking in downtown Ottawa". CityNews Toronto.
- McGregor, Glen (February 17, 2022). "claim expands to include a class of businesses. Claim now up to $306 million". Twitter. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Freeze, Colin (February 18, 2022). "Ontario court freezes millions in cash, cryptocurrency donated to Ottawa protesters". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy: Trudeau calls trucker protest an 'insult to truth'". BBC News. January 31, 2022. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Gilmore, Rachel (January 24, 2022). "Majority of truckers are vaccinated, Trudeau says, as 'freedom convoy' heads to Ottawa". Global News. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- Gilmore, Rachel (January 31, 2022). "'We won't give in' Trudeau says as trucker convoy protest continues". Global News. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Vieira, Paul (January 31, 2022). "Canada Says Trucker Vaccine Mandate Hasn't Dented Border Crossings". Wall Street Journal. Ottawa, Ontario. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Zimonjic, Peter (January 31, 2022). "Transport minister says there's 'no sign' vaccine mandate is affecting cross-border truck volume". CBC. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Turnbull, Sarah (January 31, 2022). "'Cannot look the other way': Transport minister on hateful symbols at trucker protests". CTV News. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy: Trudeau calls trucker protest an 'insult to truth'". BBC News. January 31, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Thurton, David. "Black parliamentarians say protest convoy is a venue for 'white supremacists'". CBC. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Thousands across Canada join truckers protesting COVID curbs". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Tasker, John Paul (January 24, 2022). "Conservative MPs accuse Trudeau of pushing 'vaccine vendetta' as convoy protest heads to Ottawa". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- "Transport minister concerned trucker convoy becoming a lightning rod for far-right fringe". National Post. The Canadian Press. January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Levitz, Stephanie (January 27, 2022). "Erin O'Toole says he'll meet with representatives from trucker convoy". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Officials decry 'desecration' of monuments during Ottawa protest". Toronto Star/Canadian Press. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "O'Toole resigns as Conservative leader, will stay on as MP". CTVNews. CTV News. February 2, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (January 25, 2022). "Conservative MPs cheer on trucker convoy, voice opposition to vaccine mandates". CTVNews.
- "Conservative MP discusses his support for truckers' protest". CBC. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Lévesque, Catherine (February 11, 2022). "'I'm proud of the truckers,' says Poilievre in lambasting Justin Trudeau's response to protests". National Post.
- Macfarlane, Bill; Ryan, White (January 24, 2022). "Truck convoy organizer raises over $3.8M; protest draws support and criticism". CTV News. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- "COVID-19 vaccine mandates will worsen trucker shortage, affecting consumers, experts say". The Globe and Mail. January 23, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Conservative MP Pictured With Ex-WEXIT Campaigner Who Suggested Fighting COVID-19 Restrictions "With Bullets"". PressProgress. Ottawa ON. January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Maher, Stephen (February 1, 2022). "The Conservative revolt has begun". Macleans.ca. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- @leslynlewis (January 25, 2022). "I'm proud of the Truckers. Peaceful protest is a cornerstone of our democracy. The liberal mandates are unscientific, vindictive, mean-spirited and promote segregation. The people have a moral obligation to oppose unjust laws and mandates" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Edmonton, St. Albert mayors concerned by local MP's presence at 'freedom convoy' rally in Ottawa". CTV News Edmonton. Edmonton AB. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Alberta mayors criticize Conservative MP's 'lack of judgment' at Ottawa protest". National Post. Toronto ON. Postmedia News. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Walsh, Marieke (February 4, 2022). "Interim Tory Leader Candice Bergen advocated against asking protesters to leave Ottawa". The Globe and Mail. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Turnbull, Sarah (February 3, 2022). "Bergen advised against telling truckers to leave Ottawa, said protests should be made 'PM's problem'". CTV News. Toronto ON. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- "Bergen aims to make protests Trudeau's 'problem,' calls for government 'olive branch'". Nanaimo Bulletin. Nanaimo BC. The Canadian Press. February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- "Bergen pushed O'Toole to back convoy saying there are 'good people on both sides': sources". CTVNews. February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Walsh, Marieke; Bailey, Ian (February 10, 2022). "Federal Conservatives reverse course on supporting trucker blockades, call for an end to all barricades". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Tasker, John Paul (February 10, 2022). "Federal Conservatives call on anti-vaccine mandate protesters to go home". CBC News. Toronto ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- @truedereksloan (February 1, 2022). "Only an angry, negative extremist could look at the Freedom Convoy in Ottawa and see anything but love of country, of freedom, and of fellow Canadians. I know because I was there and I experienced it. Where was Erin?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Aiello, Rachel (January 28, 2022). "Protesters arrive on Parliament Hill ahead of main trucker convoy". CTVNews. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- "Hundreds gather in Waterloo Square for PPC rally to support truck protest". Global News. January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- Catherine Lévesque; Anja Karadeglija; Swikar Oli; Michael Higgins (January 29, 2022). "Freedom Convoy 2022 live updates: Thousands pack Parliament Hill for protest". National Post. Toronto ON. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- Elizabeth Payne; Blair Crawford (February 6, 2022). "'Everybody is at a breaking point': Police board seeks more help as protest strengthens". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved February 9, 2022. "Trucker crowds free to clog Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver". The South Bayview Bulldog. Toronto ON. February 5, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- Black, Alex. "'Event we're looking at this weekend is not what it appears:' Ottawa city councillor issues statement on trucker convoy". CityNews. Rogers Sports and Media. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Tasker, John Paul; Dhanraj, Travis (January 26, 2022). "NDP's Jagmeet Singh denounces trucker convoy, disagrees with brother-in-law's donation to the cause". CBC. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
- Vakil, Caroline (February 4, 2022). "Canadian premier calls truckers protesting COVID-19 vaccine mandate an 'occupation'". The Hill. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- "Ontario Premier Ford calls for end to 'illegal' Ambassador Bridge protest tying up 'vital trade corridor'". CBC News Windsor. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 9, 2022. pp. Windsor ON. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- "Sask. premier pledges to end proof of vaccination policies in letter to truckers". CTV News Regina. January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Truckers rally in Regina, Moe promises end to Sask. vaccine mandate". thestarphoenix. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Zandbergen, Rebecca (February 17, 2022). "Regardless of political stripe, MPs say they're fielding vile calls from belligerent constituents". CBC News London. London ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Blackburn, Marsha (February 10, 2022). "I support the right of Canadian truckers to peacefully protest". Twitter. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Olson, Tyler (February 2, 2022). "Congressional Republicans back Canada 'Freedom Convoy' protest: 'Not some fringe minority'". Fox News. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Bella, Timothy (February 12, 2022). "Rand Paul urges truckers to disrupt Super Bowl and come to D.C.: 'I hope they clog up cities'". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- Banks, Jim (January 31, 2022). "Society would come to a screeching halt without truckers. They are backbone of our supply chain and should not be subjected to authoritarian mandates". Twitter. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "'GOD BLESS THE TRUCK DRIVERS': America's GOP Sends Words of Support to Canada's Freedom Convoy". Sean Hannity. February 2, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
- Gosar, Paul (February 10, 2022). "The Science hasn't changed, their poll numbers have. Oh and #freedomconvoy22 is making an impact. The last thing the want is an American trucker convoy". Twitter. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Lardner, Richard; Smith, Michelle; Swenson, Ali (February 17, 2022). "US funds for Canada protests may sway American politics too". mynbc15.com. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Jordan, Jim (January 29, 2022). "God Bless the truck drivers in Canada protesting vaccine mandates". Twitter. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- McCarthy, Kevin (January 31, 2022). "Truckers never stopped working throughout the pandemic, and government should not slow them down now". Twitter. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- McNaull, Steve (February 1, 2021). "Freedom Convoy works with media strategist to improve image". KelownaNow. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
- Tran, Paula; Skjerven, Kelly (February 16, 2021). "Kenney, Moe join forces with U.S. governors calling for end to border vaccine mandate". Global News. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
- Yun, Ton (January 29, 2021). "Donald Trump voices support for truckers convoy protest in Ottawa". CTVNews. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Meadows, Mark (January 30, 2022). "God bless these truckers standing up for freedom!". Twitter. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- Trump Jr, Donald. "Video: Heroic Truck Driver Stands Up To Medical Tyranny!". Facebook. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- Bauder, David (February 11, 2021). "U.S. conservative figures cheer on Canadian trucker protest". CTV News. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- De La Cruz, Rene Ray (February 18, 2021). "'People's Convoy' to protest government COVID-19 mandates to begin in Barstow". Daily Press. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- Ward, Myah. "What's happening with the Canadian trucker convoy? Here's what you need to know". POLITICO. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Thornton, John Bacon, Jorge L. Ortiz and Claire. "US closely tied to 'nationwide insurrection' in Canada against COVID mandates: Live updates". USA Today. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Gillies •, Rob. "US Groups Need to Stop Interfering in Canada: Ex-US Envoy". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "U.S. truckers planning protest convoy, perhaps starting in L.A. for Super Bowl, DHS warns". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- "Freedom Convoy: US urges Canada to end blockade by truckers". BBC News. February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- "U.S. Congress asks Facebook: What role did fake overseas accounts have in promoting Canada convoys?". ca.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- https://oversight.house.gov/sites/democrats.oversight.house.gov/files/2022-02-14.CBM%20to%20Zuckerberg-Meta%20re%20Inauthentic%20Accounts.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- Wade, Peter (February 21, 2022). "MAGA Chuds to Ukraine: Drop Dead". Rolling Stone India. Lower Parel (w), Mumbai, India. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- "The Real Enemy for Truckers is Covid-19". Teamsters Canada. February 7, 2022. Archived from the original on February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- "Federal government, CTA issue joint statement on vaccines, supply chain". Truck News. January 25, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- "Canadian Trucking Alliance Statement to Those Engaged in Road/Border Protests". cantruck.ca. January 22, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Federal government, CTA issue joint statement on vaccines, supply chain". Truck News. February 1, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- "'Embarrassment for the industry': Not all truckers support the 'freedom convoy'". CTVNews. January 27, 2022.
- MacInnis, Jonathan (January 25, 2022). "Atlantic trucking association speaks out against vaccine mandate protests". CTV News Atlantic. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
- "Joint statement from Canada's unions on the Ottawa occupation". Canadian Labour Congress. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- Ireton, Julie (February 9, 2022). "Truckers misrepresenting employers by joining Ottawa protest, companies say". CBC News Ottawa. Ottawa ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Canadian news host slammed for suggesting Russia behind massive 'freedom' trucker protest". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- "Ethnic media provides added perspectives on "Freedom Convoy"". ca.sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Pringle, Josh (January 29, 2022). "Top Canadian defence officials condemn protesters dancing on Tomb of the Unknown Soldier". CTV News. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Stimson, Brie (January 28, 2022). "Elon Musk offers support to Canadian truckers amid COVID vaccine mandate". Fox Business. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- "Elon Musk tweets in support of Canadian truckers ahead of 'Freedom Rally' protest". National Post. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Neate, Rupert (February 17, 2022). "Elon Musk criticised for likening Justin Trudeau to Adolf Hitler in tweet". The Guardian. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
- Mastrangelo, Dominick (February 17, 2022). "Elon Musk blasted for tweeting Adolf Hitler meme". The Hill. Washington DC: Nexstar Media Inc. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Trudell, Craig (February 17, 2022). "Elon Musk Ratchets Up Trudeau Criticism With Hitler Comparison Meme". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Craig Trudell; Bob Van Voris (February 17, 2022). "Elon Musk compares Trudeau to Hitler via Twitter meme". driving.ca. Toronto ON: Postmedia. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Abdel-Baqui, Omar (February 17, 2022). "Elon Musk Compares Justin Trudeau to Hitler in Since-Deleted Tweet". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "American media personalities have jumped onto the convoy story. Here's what that could mean for Canada". OurWindsor.ca. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- "Comedian Russell Brand voices support for Canadian truckers". National Post. January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
- O'Neil, Lauren. "Doug Ford's daughter tells people not to snitch on big illegal Christmas parties". www.blogto.com. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
- DiManno, Rosie (November 26, 2021). "Opinion | At this point in the pandemic, there's no more time for nonsense". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved December 20, 2021.
- "Krista Ford's Hubby Says Toronto Police Revoked His Badge As Part Of The 'Unpaid Leave'". Narcity. December 24, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
- Landau, Jack (January 27, 2022). "Doug Ford's daughter is out protesting with the trucker convoy in Toronto". blogTO. Toronto ON. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Taylor, Brooke (January 28, 2022). "Doug Ford's daughter, Krista Haynes, attended the "Freedom Convoy" on Thursday". DailyHive. Vancouver BC. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Iran's Mahmoud Ahmadinejad offers support to Canada's 'Freedom Convoy'". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Butler, Kiera (February 15, 2022). "These doctors' groups are cheering on the anti-vax truckers". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
- "Jordan Peterson's message to Freedom Convoy: 'You are now faced with a difficult choice'". Washington Examiner. February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- Gallant, Jacques (January 29, 2022). "Terry Fox statue used in 'stunt' in Ottawa, sparking condemnation". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Davis, Tony (February 13, 2022). "P.E.I. veteran praised for guarding cenotaph during anti-mandate rally". CBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- "Truck convoy leaders hold news conference in Ottawa – February 3, 2022" – via www.youtube.com.
- "Justice Centre representing 2022 Truckers' Freedom Convoy". February 3, 2022.
- Bradley, Jonathan (February 3, 2022). "Justice Centre lawyers in Ottawa representing Freedom Convoy truckers". True North.
- "Facebook removed anti-vaccine trucker protest groups run by overseas actors". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
- "'Convoy' Singer C.W. McCall is in Hospice".
- Mitchell, Jeff (May 5, 2022). "Hearing for Durham officer charged over Freedom Convoy video is adjourned to June". Oshawa This Week/Toronto Star. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
- "Durham cop who posted video supporting 'Freedom Convoy' facing police act charges". CBC News. March 30, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
- "Abacus Data | Pandemic frustration may be running high, but more don't side with the so-called "Freedom Convoy"". abacusdata.ca. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "Canada trucker protest: Ottawa declares emergency". BBC News. February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- Beyer, Alexander G. W.; Linden, Clifton van der. "Majority of Canadians disagree with 'freedom convoy' on vaccine mandates and lockdowns". The Conversation. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "North American Tracker". Leger. February 8, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
- Marchesan, John (February 12, 2022). "Two-thirds of Canadians support military force to end Ottawa protests: poll". CityNews. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "Blockade Backlash: Three-in-four Canadians tell convoy protesters, 'Go Home Now'". February 14, 2022.
- Neustaeter, Brooklyn (February 25, 2022). "Two in three Canadians say trucker convoy protests were ineffective: Nanos survey". CTV News. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- Media related to Canada convoy protest at Wikimedia Commons
- Special Temporary Measures for Public Order Emergency, PC 2022-0106, text of the Order in Council invoking the Emergencies Act in response to the convoy
- The Fifth Estate episode "The convoy and the questions: How a protest paralyzed a capital", aired 24 February 2022.