2022 Danish European Union opt-out referendum

Referendum on abolition of the Danish opt-out of the defence section of the Treaty of Maastricht

Danish European Union opt-out referendum

1 June 2022 (2022-06-01)

Do you vote yes or no on Denmark being able to participate in the European defence and security co-operation by abolishing the EU defence opt-out?
Results
Choice
Votes %
Yes 1,848,242 66.87%
No 915,717 33.13%
Valid votes 2,763,959 98.62%
Invalid or blank votes 38,558 1.38%
Total votes 2,802,517 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 4,260,944 65.77%

Folkeafstemning 2022 - Afstemningsområder.svg Result in each polling area.
Folkeafstemning 2022 - Opstillingskredse.svg Result in each nomination district and constituency.
Results of the referendum
Yes:      50–55%      55–60%      60–65%      65–70%      70–75%      75–80%      80%+
No:      50–55%      55–60%      60–65%

A referendum on the abolition of the defence opt-out, one of the country's opt-outs from the European Union, was held in Denmark on 1 June 2022.[1][2][a] The referendum was announced on 6 March 2022 following a broad multi-party defence agreement reached during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[3] The referendum resulted in the "Yes" side winning with approximately two-thirds of the vote.[4]

Background

After the rejection of the Maastricht Treaty in the 1992 referendum, the Edinburgh Agreement was reached, which gave Denmark four opt-outs in the European Union (EU), one of which was on defence matters. The Maastricht Treaty was subsequently ratified in 1993. The defence opt-out meant that Denmark did not participate in the Common Security and Defence Policy or EU military operations.[5] In addition, the opt-out meant that Denmark did not participate in the decision processes in the EU related to military operations.[6]

This is the third referendum to be held in relation to the country's opt-outs. In 2000, the Danish electorate rejected the adoption of the euro as national currency, and in 2015 a proposal to modify the justice opt-out was also rejected. For a referendum to be rejected, a majority of participating voters must vote against, and the voters voting against must represent at least 30% of the electorate; however the parties behind the defence agreement have agreed that the result of the referendum should stand regardless of the turnout.[7]

Campaign

The defence agreement was signed and presented by the leaders of the Social Democrats, Venstre, Socialist People's Party, Social Liberal Party, and the Conservative People's Party.[3][8] The parties endorsed the agreement, which also included increased defence spending and the aim of ending the country's dependency on Russian gas. Liberal Alliance and the Christian Democrats have also endorsed the "Yes" option,[9] while the Independent Greens voted "Yes" but did not recommend voters what they should vote.[10] The Danish People's Party, New Right, Young Conservatives and the Red–Green Alliance have opposed the abolition of the opt-out, recommending the electorate vote "No".[9]

On 30 March, the Danish Foreign Ministry released two bills (draft laws) for organising the referendum and joining the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).[11] Following this, the wording of the referendum question, which did not mention the European Union nor the opt-out,[b] was criticised by the Danish People's Party and the Red-Green Alliance.[12] Jeppe Kofod, Denmark's Foreign Minister, defended the wording, emphasising that the vote was about joining the other 26 EU member states. Following the criticism, Kofod announced a changing to the wording on 7 April, which read: "Do you vote for or against Denmark's participation in the European defence and security co-operation by abolishing the EU defence opt-out?"[13]

Concern was raised that eliminating the opt-out and participating in the CSDP could eventually lead to Denmark having to join a European army if one were to be created in the future. Foreign Minister Kofod committed that any such change would require treaty revisions, which would be put to the Danish people for approval in a new referendum.[14]

Television debates

Four major television debates involving the leaders of parties represented in the Folketing were held.[15][16][17]

Date Organisers Venue  P  Present   S  Surrogate   NI  Not invited    I  Invited  
Yes No
A V F B C I Q Å K M Ø O D
11 May[18] DR1 War Museum, Copenhagen P
Frederiksen
P
Ellemann
P
Olsen Dyhr
P
Carsten Nielsen
P
Pape
P
Vanopslagh
P
Siddique
P
Rosenkilde
P
Arendt[c]
P
Løkke
P
Villadsen
P
Messerschmidt
P
Vermund
18 May[16] TV 2 News Dokk1, Aarhus S
Bødskov
P
Ellemann
P
Olsen Dyhr
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI P
Villadsen
P
Messerschmidt
NI
29 May[19] TV2 Christiansborg, Copenhagen P
Frederiksen
P
Ellemann
P
Olsen Dyhr
P
Carsten Nielsen
P
Pape
P
Vanopslagh
P
Siddique
P
Rosenkilde
P
Karlsmose
P
Løkke
P
Villadsen
P
Messerschmidt
P
Vermund
31 May DR1 DR Koncerthuset, Copenhagen P
Frederiksen
P
Ellemann
P
Olsen Dyhr
P
Carsten Nielsen
P
Pape
P
Vanopslagh
P
Siddique
P
Rosenkilde
P
Karlsmose
P
Løkke
P
Villadsen
P
Messerschmidt
P
Vermund

Opinion polls

Date(s) Polling agency Sample Yes No Undecided Lead
30 May 2022 Epinion 44% 28% 19% 16%
27–30 May 2022 Voxmeter 1,091 53% 28% 19% 25%
23–27 May 2022 Voxmeter 2,008 51% 27% 22% 24%
16–22 May 2022 Voxmeter 45.5% 30% 24.6% 15.5%
9 May 2022 Epinion 38% 27% 35% 11%
6 May 2022 Megafon 1,009 39% 26% 35% 13%
20–27 April 2022 Epinion 2,090 39% 26% 35% 13%
18–24 April 2022 Voxmeter 39.5% 32.1% 28.4% 7.4%
4–10 April 2022 Voxmeter/Ritzau 38.8% 32.4% 28.8% 6.4%
31 March – 7 April 2022 Epinion 2,102 36% 27% 37% 9%
28 March – 3 April 2022 Voxmeter/Ritzau 1,007 39.2% 35.8% 25% 3.4%
22–28 March 2022 Voxmeter 1,000 40.3% 35.4% 24.3% 4.9%
14–20 March 2022 Voxmeter 1,509 38.2% 30.9% 30.9% 7.3%
6–20 March 2022 Wilke 1,000 42% 30% 28% 12%
8–15 March 2022 Epinion 1,020 38% 23% 39% 15%
7–11 March 2022 Voxmeter 1,509 44.2% 28.7% 27.1% 15.5%
7–8 March 2022 Megafon 2,054 55% 23% 22% 32%
6 March: The government of Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen announces a referendum on the Danish defence opt-out to be held on 1 June.[8]
3–4 March 2022[d] Megafon 1,092 49% 27% 23% 22%

Results

The result meant that 43.38% of the registered electorate had voted for the proposal, and 21.49% had voted against.

ChoiceVotes%
For1,848,24266.87
Against915,71733.13
Total2,763,959100.00
Valid votes2,763,95998.62
Invalid votes5,8190.21
Blank votes32,7391.17
Total votes2,802,517100.00
Registered voters/turnout4,260,94465.77
Source: Denmark Statistics[20]

By constituency

District For Against Valid Blank Invalid Total
Votes % Votes %
Capital Region of Denmark 581,703 69.5% 254,874 30.5% 836,577 10,007 1,775 848,359
Copenhagen 235,847 69.4% 104,221 30.6% 340,068 5,108 827 346,003
1. Østerbro 27,096 74.1% 9,467 25.9% 36,563 510 82 37,155
2. Sundbyvester 21,591 69.7% 9,395 30.3% 30,986 428 90 31,504
3. Indre By 19,612 74.5% 6,710 25.5% 26,322 365 81 26,768
4. Sundbyøster 17,135 67.9% 8,100 32.1% 25,235 357 62 25,654
5. Nørrebro 22,004 65.3% 11,672 34.7% 33,676 715 87 34,478
6. Bispebjerg 12,065 60.5% 7,885 39.5% 19,950 400 60 20,410
7. Brønshøj 22,649 67.2% 11,053 32.8% 33,702 498 82 34,282
8. Valby 16,844 67.8% 7,987 32.2% 24,831 352 74 25,257
9. Vesterbro 22,042 69.6% 9,614 30.4% 31,656 570 78 32,304
10. Falkoner 20,180 76.7% 6,126 23.3% 26,306 344 39 26,689
11. Slots 17,313 72.1% 6,684 27.9% 23,997 327 52 24,376
12. Tårnby 17,316 64.5% 9,528 35.5% 26,844 242 40 27,126
Greater Copenhagen 160,842 68.1% 75,490 31.9% 236,342 2,407 508 239,257
1. Gentofte 29,382 80.2% 7,268 19.8% 36,650 287 66 37,003
2. Lyngby 22,099 77.6% 6,378 22.4% 28,477 296 53 28,826
3. Gladsaxe 20,642 69.1% 9,244 30.9% 29,886 344 52 30,282
4. Rødovre 18,978 64.4% 10,506 35.6% 29,484 343 60 29,887
5. Hvidovre 14,015 62.9% 8,260 37.1% 22,275 242 24 22,541
6. Brøndby 16,091 60.0% 10,738 40.0% 26,829 233 81 27,143
7. Taastrup 18,831 61.8% 11,625 38.2% 30,456 292 74 30,822
8. Ballerup 20,814 64.5% 11,471 35.5% 32,285 370 98 32,753
North Zealand 172,177 71.8% 67,611 28.2% 239,788 2,176 396 242,360
1. Helsingør 21,396 69.3% 9,488 30.7% 30,884 290 64 31,238
2. Fredensborg 25,446 75.8% 8,121 24.2% 33,567 247 29 33,843
3. Hillerød 32,921 68.2% 15,334 31.8% 48,255 470 61 48,786
4. Frederikssund 24,668 63.4% 14,262 36.6% 38,930 404 91 39,425
5. Egedal 32,324 73.7% 11,547 26.3% 43,871 407 63 44,341
6. Rudersdal 35,422 80.0% 8,859 20.0% 44,281 358 88 44,727
Bornholm 12,827 62.9% 7,552 37.1% 20,379 316 44 20,739
1. Rønne 6,390 63.3% 3,699 36.7% 10,089 167 21 10,277
2. Aakirkeby 6,437 62.6% 3,853 37.4% 10,290 149 23 10,462
Region Zealand & Region of Southern Denmark 646,102 64.6% 354,611 35.4% 1,000,713 11,340 2,183 1,014,236
Zealand 265,947 64.0% 149,567 36.0% 415,514 4,428 837 420,779
1. Lolland 11,245 59.2% 7,758 40.8% 19,003 220 63 19,286
2. Guldborgsund 18,635 61.3% 11,747 38.7% 30,382 357 82 30,821
3. Vordingborg 14,973 62.8% 8,879 37.2% 23,852 270 38 24,160
4. Næstved 25,668 62.5% 15,394 37.5% 41,062 423 74 41,559
5. Faxe 18,740 61.7% 11,640 38.3% 30,380 287 89 30,756
6. Køge 29,952 66.6% 15,042 33.4% 44,994 537 72 45,603
7. Greve 23,601 67.7% 11,240 32.3% 34,841 283 55 35,179
8. Roskilde 32,809 72.0% 12,767 28.0% 45,576 521 79 46,176
9. Holbæk 22,771 64.2% 12,704 35.8% 35,475 380 76 35,931
10. Kalundborg 24,685 60.0% 16,460 40.0% 41,145 423 91 41,659
11. Ringsted 20,232 64.0% 11,385 36.0% 31,617 387 59 32,063
12. Slagelse 22,636 60.9% 14,551 39.1% 37,187 340 59 37,586
Funen 165,365 67.3% 80,211 32.7% 245,576 3,166 576 249,318
1. Odense Øst 20,137 66.6% 10,084 33.4% 30,221 473 96 30,790
2. Odense Vest 19,795 68.4% 9,162 31.6% 28,957 381 71 29,409
3. Odense Syd 25,484 72.6% 9,600 27.4% 35,084 483 83 35,650
4. Assens 13,840 66.0% 7,131 34.0% 20,971 237 57 21,265
5. Middelfart 23,544 66.0% 12,125 34.0% 35,669 396 93 36,158
6. Nyborg 18,800 65.8% 9,778 34.2% 28,578 365 48 28,991
7. Svendborg 23,954 65.4% 12,656 34.6% 36,610 473 78 37,161
8. Faaborg 19,811 67.2% 9,675 32.8% 29,486 358 50 29,894
South Jutland 214,790 63.2% 124,833 36.8% 339,623 3,746 770 344,139
1. Sønderborg 22,352 63.5% 12,853 36.5% 35,205 379 93 35,677
2. Aabenraa 16,458 61.3% 10,410 38.7% 26,868 277 56 27,201
3. Tønder 10,295 60.6% 6,700 39.4% 16,995 217 42 17,254
4. Esbjerg By 16,859 59.1% 11,686 40.9% 28,545 289 60 28,894
5. Esbjerg Omegn 16,651 63.8% 9,432 36.2% 26,083 258 44 26,385
6. Varde 14,852 63.1% 8,698 36.9% 23,550 268 64 23,882
7. Vejen 19,486 61.7% 12,109 38.3% 31,595 384 78 32,057
8. Vejle Nord 18,950 68.5% 8,722 31.5% 27,672 296 78 28,046
9. Vejle Syd 18,714 67.2% 9,147 32.8% 27,861 342 75 28,278
10. Fredericia 15,271 62.2% 9,268 37.8% 24,539 276 59 24,874
11. Kolding Nord 13,754 67.3% 6,697 32.7% 20,451 203 43 20,697
12. Kolding Syd 14,738 63.4% 8,502 36.6% 23,240 257 35 23,532
13. Haderslev 16,410 60.7% 10,609 39.3% 27,019 300 43 27,362
Central Denmark & North Denmark Regions 620,437 67.0% 306,232 33.0% 926,669 11,392 1,861 939,922
East Jutland 274,182 69.5% 120,265 30.5% 394,447 5,175 837 400,459
1. Århus Syd 30,136 74.6% 10,286 25.4% 40,422 598 101 41,121
2. Århus Vest 26,101 69.6% 11,390 30.4% 37,491 528 95 38,114
3. Århus Nord 29,341 71.8% 11,518 28.2% 40,859 719 120 41,698
4. Århus Øst 40,275 77.0% 12,063 23.0% 52,338 862 132 53,332
5. Djurs 26,056 65.1% 13,958 34.9% 40,014 374 71 40,459
6. Randers Nord 13,466 61.5% 8,435 38.5% 21,901 225 46 22,172
7. Randers Syd 15,418 64.2% 8,592 35.8% 24,010 243 42 24,295
8. Favrskov 17,104 69.4% 7,527 30.6% 24,631 257 43 24,931
9. Skanderborg 34,031 72.0% 13,214 28.0% 47,245 576 53 47,874
10. Horsens 27,296 64.7% 14,887 35.3% 42,183 479 93 42,755
11. Hedensted 14,958 64.1% 8,395 35.9% 23,353 314 41 23,708
West Jutland 168,770 66.3% 85,772 33.7% 254,542 3,092 465 258,099
1. Struer 13,526 65.6% 7,106 34.4% 20,632 226 44 20,902
2. Skive 14,251 62.8% 8,427 37.2% 22,678 277 35 22,990
3. Viborg Vest 16,218 66.8% 8,052 33.2% 24,270 332 58 24,660
4. Viborg Øst 14,892 67.1% 7,294 32.9% 22,186 268 45 22,499
5. Silkeborg Nord 15,996 67.2% 7,797 32.8% 23,793 296 43 24,132
6. Silkeborg Syd 18,202 71.5% 7,273 28.5% 25,475 325 48 25,848
7. Ikast 11,781 63.2% 6,866 36.8% 18,647 214 29 18,890
8. Herning Syd 12,471 65.7% 6,504 34.3% 18,975 215 38 19,228
9. Herning Nord 15,293 66.7% 7,638 33.3% 22,931 270 23 23,224
10. Holstebro 18,529 66.1% 9,482 33.9% 28,011 341 51 28,403
11. Ringkøbing 17,611 65.4% 9,333 34.6% 26,944 328 51 27,323
North Jutland 177,485 63.9% 100,195 36.1% 277,680 3,125 559 281,364
1. Frederikshavn 17,159 58.4% 12,245 41.6% 29,404 251 130 29,785
2. Hjørring 18,894 62.8% 11,187 37.2% 30,081 315 72 30,468
3. Brønderslev 22,239 62.3% 13,450 37.7% 35,689 421 53 36,163
4. Thisted 18,481 62.3% 11,168 37.7% 29,649 331 55 30,035
5. Himmerland 20,651 65.2% 11,014 34.8% 31,665 335 54 32,054
6. Mariagerfjord 12,339 61.9% 7,579 38.1% 19,918 197 42 20,157
7. Aalborg Øst 25,578 66.3% 12,987 33.7% 38,565 503 55 39,123
8. Aalborg Vest 21,855 69.0% 9,801 31.0% 31,656 401 41 32,098
9. Aalborg Nord 20,289 65.3% 10,764 34.7% 31,053 371 57 31,481
Denmark 1,848,242 66.9% 915,717 33.1% 2,763,959 32,739 5,819 2,802,517
Source: Denmark Statistics[21]

Reactions

Exit polls released by national broadcasters DR and TV 2 immediately after polls closed at 20:00 CEST (18:00 UTC) showed a large majority of the electorate had voted "Yes".[22][23] This was the first time that Denmark had ever abolished one of its EU opt-outs.[24] This was the largest share of the vote ever received by the "Yes" side in an EU-referendum, with the result being described by some as a landslide.[23] The turnout at 65.8% was noted as one of the lowest of any EU referendum, with only the 2014 Danish Unified Patent Court membership referendum having had a lower turnout.[25] Election scholars expressed concern and attributed the low turnout to some parties being hesitant to campaign, as well as the opinion polls prior to the election showing the yes side having a large lead.

Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen commented that she was "very very happy" for the result, and said that Denmark had sent a very important signal to its allies and a clear signal to Vladimir Putin.[24] She also praised the cooperation with the other parties that had advocated in favour of the referendum. Frederiksen emphasised that there were no plans to abolish Denmark's remaining opt-outs, promising that the referendum had been "about the defence opt-out and nothing else". Venstre leader Jakob Ellemann-Jensen said that the vote sent a clear result that other countries could count on Denmark. He then focused on the next Danish general election, saying that the country's right-wing should work together to give Denmark a new government.[26]

Morten Messerschmidt commented that the result showed that the Danish People's Party was alive.[26] He said that many people's votes were "influenced by the war in Ukraine". Political Spokesperson of Red–Green Alliance, Mai Villadsen, said that she had "very great respect" for the result of the election.[27] She mentioned that many of the party's voters had voted "Yes", and promised that the party would remain engaged with defence policy.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen welcomed the result and said that Denmark and the EU "would benefit from the decision".[28] French President Emmanuel Macron said that it was a "fantastic news for our Europe" and that "we are stronger together".[29] Following the referendum, Denmark's Foreign Ministry stated that it planned to formally ratify the decision and notify the EU of its participation in time for it to be effective from 1 July.[30]

Notes

  1. ^ The vote did not take place on the Faroe Islands or Greenland, which are not part of the European Union. See Faroe Islands and the European Union, Greenland and the European Union, and withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities for details.
  2. ^ Do you vote for or against Denmark's participation in the European defence and security co-operation?
    Danish: Stemmer du ja eller nej til, at Danmark kan deltage i det europæiske samarbejde om sikkerhed og forsvar? (Forslag til lov om Danmarks deltagelse i det europæiske samarbejde om sikkerhed og forsvar)
  3. ^ Arendt resigned as party leader during the campaign on 17 May.
  4. ^ The wording of the question differs from the referendum: "Drop the defence opt-out and join a joint EU army?"

References

  1. ^ "Danskerne skal stemme om forsvarsforbeholdet 1. juni". TV2 (in Danish). 2022-03-06. Archived from the original on 2022-03-06. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  2. ^ "Endeligt udkast til forslag til Lov om Danmarks deltagelse i det europæiske samarbejde om sikkerhed og forsvar" (PDF). 30 March 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Nationalt kompromis om dansk sikkerhedspolitik" [National compromise on Danish security policy] (PDF). Regeringen (in Danish). 6 March 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  4. ^ "Resultater – Folkeafstemning onsdag 1. juni 2022 – Danmarks Statistik". dst.dk. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  5. ^ "Danmark og EU". Forsvarsministeriet (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2022-03-19. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  6. ^ "Hvad betyder det, om det bliver et ja eller et nej til forsvarsforbeholdet? – TV 2". TV2 (in Danish). 2022-03-06. Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  7. ^ "Endeligt udkast til forslag til Lov om Danmarks deltagelse i det europæiske samarbejde om sikkerhed og forsvar" (PDF). 30 March 2022. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Forsvarsforbeholdet skal til folkeafstemning 1. juni, og Forsvaret skal styrkes" (in Danish). DR. 2022-03-06. Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  9. ^ a b "Her er de stærkeste argumenter for og imod forsvarsforbeholdet – TV 2". TV2 (in Danish). 2022-03-08. Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  10. ^ "Vi stemmer JA – Hvad stemmer du?". Independent Greens. 11 May 2022. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Høring om to lovforslag vedrørende folkeafstemning om Danmarks deltagelse i det europæiske samarbejde om sikkerhed og forsvar". via.ritzau.dk. Archived from the original on 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
  12. ^ "Formulering på stemmeseddel ved folkeafstemning minder om direkte snyderi, mener Enhedslisten – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-03-30. Archived from the original on 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
  13. ^ "Ordlyden på stemmesedlen om forsvarsforbeholdet ændres – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-04-07. Archived from the original on 2022-04-07. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  14. ^ "Kofod forsøger at berolige EU-skeptikere: Lover ny afstemning, hvis fælles EU-hær bliver realitet". DR. 2022-04-20. Archived from the original on 2022-04-30. Retrieved 2022-04-30.
  15. ^ "Sådan dækker DR folkeafstemningen om forsvarsforbeholdet". DR (in Danish). 2022-05-05. Archived from the original on 2022-05-29. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  16. ^ a b "Folkeafstemning om forsvarsforbeholdet: TV 2 NEWS og Radio4 samler politikere og eksperter til stor debat i Aarhus". omtv2.tv2.dk (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2022-05-29. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  17. ^ "Ja eller nej til forsvarsforbeholdet? TV 2 skruer op for dækningen på alle platforme". omtv2.tv2.dk (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2022-06-10. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  18. ^ "MINUT FOR MINUT: Sådan gik det, da partilederne tørnede sammen om forsvarsforbeholdet". DR (in Danish). 2022-05-11. Archived from the original on 2022-05-12. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  19. ^ "Bølgerne gik højt i EU-debat – her er fem nedslag – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-05-29. Archived from the original on 2022-05-30. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  20. ^ "RESULTATER - HELE LANDET" [RESULTS - WHOLE COUNTRY] (in Danish). Archived from the original on 12 June 2022.
  21. ^ "RESULTATER" [RESULTS] (in Danish). Archived from the original on 9 June 2022.
  22. ^ "Exitpoll: Stort flertal stemmer 'ja' til at afskaffe forsvarsforbeholdet | Seneste nyt". DR (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2022-06-10. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  23. ^ a b "Exitpoll: Flertal stemmer ja – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-06-01. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  24. ^ a b "Danskerne stemmer ja til at afskaffe forsvarsforbeholdet – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-06-01. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  25. ^ "Lav valgdeltagelse bekymrer: 'Det er et nederlag for demokratiet'". DR (in Danish). 2022-06-02. Archived from the original on 2022-06-02. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  26. ^ a b "Ellemann glæder sig over ja – og ser frem mod næste valg – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-06-01. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  27. ^ "Mai Villadsen: Mange af vores vælgere har stemt ja – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-06-01. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  28. ^ "Resten af Europa omfavner Danmark efter historisk resultat – TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2022-06-01. Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  29. ^ Macron, Emmanuel (1 June 2022). "Aujourd'hui, le peuple danois a voté pour rejoindre la politique européenne de défense. C'est une excellente nouvelle pour notre Europe ! Nous sommes plus forts ensemble". Twitter (in French). Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  30. ^ "Danes vote yes to abolish EU defence opt-out – here are the next steps". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark). 2022-06-02. Archived from the original on 2022-06-02. Retrieved 2022-06-05.

Further reading

  • Butler, Graham (2020). "The European Defence Union and Denmark's Defence Opt-out: A Legal Appraisal". European Foreign Affairs Review. 25 (1): 117–150. doi:10.54648/EERR2020008. S2CID 216432180.
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